Long-term brain and behavioral consequences of early iron deficiency


  • Michael K Georgieff

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota School of Medicine and the College of Education and Human Development, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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MK Georgieff, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, 420 Delaware St. SE, MMC 39, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. E-mail: georg001@umn.edu, Phone: +1-612-626-0644, Fax: +1-612-624-8176.


Early iron deficiency not only affects brain and behavioral function during the period of iron deficiency, it persists long after treatment. The mechanisms include long-term alterations in dopamine metabolism, myelination, and hippocampal structure and function. Recent studies have demonstrated long-term genomic changes, which suggests the regulation of brain function is fundamentally altered.