• 1
    World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessing the Iron Status of Populations, 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.
  • 2
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
  • 3
    Baker RD, Greer FR, Committee on Nutrition. Clinical report: Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0–3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010;126:10401050.
  • 4
    Bamberg R. Occurrence and detection of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers. Clin Lab Sci. 2008;21:225231.
  • 5
    Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW. Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:687694.
  • 6
    Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Felt B, Georgieff M, Schallert T. Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(Suppl):S34S91.
  • 7
    Beard JL. Why iron deficiency is important in infant development. J Nutr. 2008;138:25342536.
  • 8
    Collard KJ. Iron homeostasis in the neonate. Pediatrics. 2009;123:12081216.
  • 9
    Zlotkin S. Clinical nutrition 8: The role of nutrition in the prevention of iron-deficiency anemia in infants, children and adolescents. Can Med Assoc J. 2003;168:5963.
  • 10
    Kazal LA. Prevention of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66:12171224.
  • 11
    World Health Organization. Vitamin and Mineral Information System (VMNIS ). 2011. Available at: Accessed 12 October 2010.
  • 12
    Domellof M, Dewey KG, Lonnerdal B, Cohen RJ, Hernell O. The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated. J Nutr. 2002;132:36803686.
  • 13
    Lutter CK. Iron deficiency in young children in low-income countries and new approaches for its prevention. J Nutr. 2008;138:25232528.
  • 14
    Neufeld LM, Garcia-Guerra A, Sánchez-Francia D, Newton-Sánchez O, Ramírez-Villalobos MD, Rivera-Dommarco J. Hemoglobin measured by Hemocue and reference method in venous and capillary blood: A validation study. Salud Publica Mex. 2002;44:219227.
  • 15
    Lozoff B, Armony-Sivan R, Kaciroti N, Jing Y, Golub M, Jacobson SW. Eye-blinking rates are slower in infants with iron-deficiency anemia than in nonanemic iron-deficient or iron-sufficient infants. J Nutr. 2010;140:10571061.
  • 16
    World Health Organization. Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia 1993–2005: WHO Global Database on Anemia. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
  • 17
    World Health Organization. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001:WHO/NHD/01.3.
  • 18
    Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1998.
  • 19
    Neufeld LM, Tolentina L. Nutritional surveillance – developing countries. In: Caballero B, ed. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2005:371381.
  • 20
    Gibson RS. Principals of Nutritional Assessment, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2005.
  • 21
    Beard JL. Iron. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Vol I, 9th ed. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute; 2006:430444.
  • 22
    World Health Organization. Technical Report Series No. 182: Iron Deficiency Anemia; Report of a Study Group. Geneva. World Health Organization. 1959;182.
  • 23
    World Health Organization. Nutrition: Call for Public Comments, Scientific Data and Information: Indicators for the Assessment of Vitamin A and Iron Status in Populations in preparation for the WHO Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group Monitoring and Evaluation Subgroup Meeting. Version Current September 2010. 2010. Available at: Accessed 1 October 2010.
  • 24
    Cook JD, Lipschitz DA, Miles LEM, Finch CA. Serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores in normal subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:681687.
  • 25
    Mei Z, Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, et al. Hemoglobin and ferritin are currently the most efficient indicators of population response to iron interventions: An analysis of nine randomized controlled trials. J Nutr. 2005;135:19741980.
  • 26
    Jeremiah ZA, Buseri FI, Uko EK. Iron deficiency anaemia and evaluation of the utility of iron deficiency indicators among healthy Nigerian children. Hematology. 2007;12:249253.
  • 27
    Biesalski HK, Erhardt JG. Ch. 4: Diagnosis of nutritional anemia – laboratory assessment of iron status. In: Badham J, Zimmermann MB, Kraemer K, eds. The Guidebook: Nutritional Anemia. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life Press; 2007:1516.
  • 28
    Thurnham DI, McCabe LD, Wieringa FT, Northrop-Clewes CA, McCabe GP. Adjusting plasma ferretin concentrations to remove the effects of subclinical inflammation in the assessment of iron deficiency: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:546555.
  • 29
    Ooi CL, Lepage N, Nieuwenhuys E, Sharma AP, Filler G. Pediatric reference intervals for soluble transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor-ferritin index. World J Pediatr. 2009;5:122126.
  • 30
    Zimmermann M. Methods to assess iron and iodine status. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(Suppl):S2S9.
  • 31
    Olivares M, Walter T, Cook JD, Hertrampf E, Pizarro H. Usefulness of serum transferrin receptor and serum ferritin in diagnosis of iron deficiency in infancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:11911195.
  • 32
    Miller MF, Stoltzfus RJ, Mbuya NV, Malaba LC, Iliff PJ, Humphrey JH, ZVITAMBO Study Group. Total body iron in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Zimbabwean newborns strongly predicts anemia throughout infancy and is predicted by maternal hemoglobin concentration. J Nutr. 2003;133:34613468.
  • 33
    Janofsky J, Starfield B. Assessment of risk in research on children. J Pediatrics. 1981;98:842846.
  • 34
    Rao R, Georgieff MK. Iron in fetal and neonatal nutrition. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;12:5463.
  • 35
    Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Ch 3: Social and cultural issues. In: The Ethics of Research Related to Healthcare in Developing Countries. London, UK: Nuffield Council on Bioethics; 2002:3743.
  • 36
    Corneli AL, Piwoz EG, Bentley ME, et al. Involving communities in the design of clinical trial protocols: The BAN Study in Lilongwe, Malawi. Contemp Clin Trials. 2007;28:5967.
  • 37
    Villalpando S, Garcia-Guerra A, Ramirez-Silva CI, et al. Iron, zinc and iodide status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12–49 years of age: A probabilistic national survey. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45(Suppl):S520S529.
  • 38
    Tuyet Mai T, Kim Hung N, Kawakami M, Kawase M, van Chuyen N. Micronutrient status of primary school girls in rural and urban areas of south Vietnam. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2003;12:178185.
  • 39
    Villalpando S, Shamah-Levy T, Ramírez-Silva CI, Mejía-Rodríguez F, Rivera JA. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: Results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45(Suppl):S490S498.
  • 40
    Rivera JA, Monterrubio EA, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Garcia-Feregrino R, Garcia-Guerra A, Sepulved-Amor J. Nutritional status of indigenous children younger than five years of age in Mexico: Results of a national probabilistic survey. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45(Suppl):S466S476.
  • 41
    Villalpando S, Perez-Exposito AB, Shamah-Levy T, Rivera JA. Distribution of anemia associated with micronutrient deficiencies other than iron in a probabilistic sample of Mexican children. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50:506511.
  • 42
    Panomai N, Sanchaisuriya K, Yamsri S, et al. Thalassemia and iron deficiency in a group of northeast Thai school children: Relationship to the occurrence of anemia. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:13171322.
  • 43
    Asobayire FS, Adou P, Davidsson L, Cook JD, Hurrell RF. Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia in population groups with high prevalences of malaria and other infections: a study in Côte d'Ivoire. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:776782.