SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Martorell R. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31:6882.
  • 2
    World Health Organization. Meeting of Advisory Group on Maternal Nutrition and Low Birth Weight. Geneva, World Health Organization 2002.
  • 3
    Woodall AA, Ames BN. Nutritional prevention of DNA damage to sperm and consequent risk reduction in birth defects and cancer in offspring. In: Bendich A, Deckelbaum R, eds. Preventive Nutrition. Totowa, NJ: The Humana Press, Inc.; 1997:373385.
  • 4
    Barker DJ, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG. Growth and chronic disease: findings in the Helsinki Birth Cohort. Ann Hum Biol. 2009;36:445458.
  • 5
    Bothwell TH. Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(Suppl):S257S264.
  • 6
    Hytten F. Blood volume changes in normal pregnancy. Clin Haematol. 1985;14:601612.
  • 7
    Widdowson EM. Trace elements in foetal and early postnatal development. Proc Nutr Soc. 1974;33:275284.
  • 8
    Siimes AS, Siimes MA. Changes in the concentration of ferritin in the serum during fetal life in singletons and twins. Early Hum Dev. 1986;13:4752.
  • 9
    Saarinen UM, Siimes MA. Iron absorption from breast milk, cow's milk, and iron-supplemented formula: an opportunistic use of changes in total body iron determined by hemoglobin, ferritin, and body weight in 132 infants. Pediatr Res. 1979;13:143147.
  • 10
    Siddappa AM, Rao R, Long JD, Widness JA, Georgieff MK. Assessment of newborn iron stores at birth: a review of the literature and standards for ferritin concentrations. Neonatology. 2007;92:7382.
  • 11
    Knutson MD. Iron-sensing proteins that regulate hepcidin and enteric iron absorption. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010;30:149171.
  • 12
    Barrett JF, Whittaker PG, Williams JG, Lind T. Absorption of non-haem iron in normal women measured by the incorporation of two stable isotopes into erythrocytes. Clin Sci (Lond). 1992;83:213219.
  • 13
    Wallander ML, Leibold EA, Eisenstein RS. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:668689.
  • 14
    Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU, Andrews NC. Balancing acts: molecular control of mammalian iron metabolism. Cell. 2004;117:285297.
  • 15
    Sheth S. SQUID biosusceptometry in the measurement of hepatic iron. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33:373377.
  • 16
    Sood SK, Ramachandran K, Mathur M, et al. W.H.O. sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. 1. The effects of supplemental oral iron administration to pregnant women. Q J Med. 1975;44:241258.
  • 17
    Morasso Mdel C, Molero J, Vinocur P, et al. Iron deficiency and anemia in pregnant women from Chaco, Argentina. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2002;52:336343.
  • 18
    Kaufer M, Casaneuva E. Relation of pregnancy serum ferritin levels to hemoglobin levels throughout pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990;44:709715.
  • 19
    Berger J, Thanh HT, Cavalli-Sforza T, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status. Nutr Rev. 2005;63(Suppl):S95S108.
  • 20
    de Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005. WHO Global database on anaemia. WHO, CDC; Geneva, World Health Organization 2008.
  • 21
    Cook JD, Skikne BS, Lynch SR, Reusser ME. Estimates of iron sufficiency in the US population. Blood. 1986;68:726731.
  • 22
    Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg K-E, Eriksen L, Hvas A-M. Reference intervals for haematological variables during normal pregnancy and postpartum in 434 healthy Danish women. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:3946.
  • 23
    Romslo I, Haram K, Sagen N, Augensen K. Iron requirements in normal pregnancy as assessed by serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations. Br J Obstet Gyenaecol. 1983;90:101107.
  • 24
    Svanberg B, Arvidsson B, Norrby A, Rybo G, Sölvell L. Absorption of iron in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1975;48(Suppl):S87S108.
  • 25
    Sjostedt JE, Manner P, Nummi S, Ekenved G. Oral iron prophylaxis during pregnancy: a comparative study on different dosage regimens. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 1977;60:39.
  • 26
    Puolakka J, Janne O, Pakarinen A, Jarvinen A, Vihko R. Serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores during and after normal pregnancy with and without iron supplements. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 1980;95:4351.
  • 27
    Scanlon KS, Yip R, Schieve LA, Cogswell ME. High and low hemoglobin levels during pregnancy: differential risks for preterm birth and small for gestational age. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:741748.
  • 28
    Centers for Disease Control. CDC criteria for anemia in children and childbearing-age women. MMWR. 1989;38:400404.
  • 29
    WHO/UNICEF/UNU. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Assessment, Prevention and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. WHO/NHD/01.3. Geneva, World Health Organization. 2001.
  • 30
    Steer PJ. Maternal hemoglobin concentration and birth weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(Suppl):S1285S1287.
  • 31
    Malhotra M, Sharma JB, Batra S, Sharma S, Murthy NS, Arora R. Maternal and perinatal outcome in varying degrees of anemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;79:93100.
  • 32
    Ervasti M, Sankilampi U, Heinonen S, Punnonen K. Early signs of maternal iron deficiency do not influence the iron status of the newborn, but are associated with higher infant birthweight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:8390.
  • 33
    Murphy JF, O'Riordan J, Newcombe RG, Coles EC, Pearson JF. Relation of haemoglobin levels in first and second trimesters to outcome of pregnancy. Lancet. 1986;1:992995.
  • 34
    von Tempelhoff GF, Heilmann L, Rudig L, Pollow K, Hommel G, Koscielny J. Mean maternal second-trimester hemoglobin concentration and outcome of pregnancy: a population-based study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2008;14:1928.
  • 35
    Mahomed K, Hytten F. Iron and folate supplementation in pregnancy. In: Chalmers I, ed. Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1989:301307.
  • 36
    Steer P, Alam MA, Wadsworth J, Welch A. Relation between maternal haemoglobin concentration and birth weight in different ethnic groups. BMJ. 1995;310:489491.
  • 37
    Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Fischer RL, Shearer JW. Anemia vs iron deficiency: increased risk of preterm delivery in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:985988.
  • 38
    Levy A, Fraser D, Katz M, Mazor M, Sheiner E. Maternal anemia during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for low birthweight and preterm delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;122:182186.
  • 39
    Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 1987;65:663737.
  • 40
    Zhang J, Merialdi M, Platt LD, Kramer MS. Defining normal and abnormal fetal growth: promises and challenges. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:522528.
  • 41
    Skikne BS, Flowers CH, Cook J. Serum transferrin receptor: a quantitative measure of tissue iron deficiency. Blood. 1990;75:18701876.
  • 42
    Cook JD, Flowers CH, Skikne BS. The quantitative assessment of body iron. Blood. 2003;101:33593364.
  • 43
    Cook JD, Finch CA. Assessing iron status of a population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:21152119.
  • 44
    Cook JD, Alvarado J, Gutnisky A, et al. Nutritional deficiency and anemia in Latin America: a collaborative study. Blood. 1971;38:591603.
  • 45
    Akesson A, Bjellerup P, Berglund M, Bremme K, Vahter M. Serum transferrin receptor: a specific marker of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:12411246.
  • 46
    Choi JW, Pai SH. Change in erythropoiesis with gestational age during pregnancy. Ann Hematol. 2001;80:2631.
  • 47
    Schulze KJ, Christian P, Ruczinski I, et al. Hepcidin and iron status among pregnant women in Bangladesh. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:451456.
  • 48
    Rehu M, Punnonen K, Ostland V, et al. Maternal serum hepcidin is low at term and independent of cord blood iron status. Eur J Haematol. 2010;85:345352.
  • 49
    Ervasti M, Kotisaari S, Heinonen S, Punnonen K. Use of advanced red blood cell and reticulocyte indices improves the accuracy in diagnosing iron deficiency in pregnant women at term. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:539545. (Erratum in: Eur J Haematol. 2008;80:92).
  • 50
    Ervasti M, Kotisaari S, Heinonen S, Punnonen K. Elevated serum erythropoietin concentration is associated with coordinated changes in red blood cell and reticulocyte indices of pregnant women at term. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2008;68:160165.
  • 51
    Madan A, Varma S, Cohen HJ. Developmental stage-specific expression of the α and β subunits of the HIF-1 protein in the mouse and human fetus. Mol Genet Metab. 2002;75:244249.
  • 52
    Jepson JH. Endocrine control of maternal and fetal erythropoiesis. Can Med Assoc J. 1968;98:844847.
  • 53
    Carretti N, la Marca A. Maternal serum levels of human chorionic somatotropin correlates with transferrin and erythropoietin in pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2002;53:2831.
  • 54
    Viteri FE. Prevention of iron deficiency. In: Howson CP, Kennedy E, Horwitz A, eds. Micronutrient Deficiencies: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Public Health Workers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998:45102.
  • 55
    Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Bendich A, et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:134141.
  • 56
    The Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrient Intervention Trial (SUMMIT) Study Group. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant death in Indonesia: a double-blind cluster-randomized trial. Lancet. 2008;371:215227.
  • 57
    Dalmiya N, Darnton-Hill I, Schultink W, Shrimpton R. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy: a decade of collaboration in action. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(Suppl):S477S479.
  • 58
    Casanueva E, Viteri FE, Mares-Galindo M, et al. Weekly iron as a safe alternative to daily supplementation for nonanemic pregnant women. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:674682.
  • 59
    Mulder GB, Manley N, Grant J, et al. Effects of excess vitamin A on development of cranial neural crest-derived structures: a neonatal and embryologic study. Teratology. 2000;62:214226.
  • 60
    Sinning AR. Role of vitamin A in the formation of congenital heart defects. Anat Rec. 1998;253:147153.
  • 61
    Zondervan HA, Oosting J, Smorenberg-Schoorl ME, Treffers PE. Longitudinal changes in blood viscosity are correlated with fetal outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988;67:253257.
  • 62
    Boito SM, Struijk PC, Pop GA, Visser W, Steegers EA, Wladimiroff JW. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004;23:327332.
  • 63
    Oosterhof H, Wichers G, Fidler V, Aarnoudse JG. Placenta. Blood viscosity and uterine artery flow velocity waveforms in pregnancy: a longitudinal study. 1993;14:555561.
  • 64
    Burton GJ, Woods AW, Jauniaux E, Kingdom JC. Rheological and physiological consequences of conversion of the maternal spiral arteries for uteroplacental blood flow during human pregnancy. Placenta. 2009;30:473482.
  • 65
    Ziaei S, Norrozi M, Faghihzadeh S, Jafarbegloo E. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of iron supplementation on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with haemoglobin > or = 13.2 g/dl. BJOG. 2007;114:684688. Erratum in: BJOG. 2007;114:1311.
  • 66
    Gonzales GF, Steenland K, Tapia V. Maternal hemoglobin level and fetal outcome at low and high altitudes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1477R1485.
  • 67
    Chang SC, O'Brien KO, Nathanson MS, Mancini J, Witter FR. Hemoglobin concentrations influence birth outcomes in pregnant African-American adolescents. J Nutr. 2003;133:23482355.
  • 68
    Zhou LM, Yang WW, Hua JZ, Deng CQ, Tao X, Stoltzfus RJ. Relation of hemoglobin measured at different times in pregnancy to preterm birth and low birth weight in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:9981006.
  • 69
    Silver HM, Seebeck M, Carlson R. Comparison of total blood volume in normal, preeclamptic, and nonproteinuric gestational hypertensive pregnancy by simultaneous measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:8793.
  • 70
    McArdle H. Role of the placenta in regulation of fetal iron status. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(Suppl. 1):S17S22.
  • 71
    Larsen WJ, Sherman LS, Potter S, Scott WJ. Human Embryology, 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2001.
  • 72
    Sánchez-Elsner T, Ramírez JR, Rodriguez-Sanz F, et al. A cross-talk between hypoxia and TGF-β orchestrates erythropoietin gene regulation through SP1 and smads. Mol Biol. 2004;336:924.
  • 73
    Burton GJ, Jauniaux E, Charnock-Jones DS. The influence of the intrauterine environment on human placental development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:303312.
  • 74
    Lunghi L, Ferretti ME, Medici S, Biondi C, Vesce F. Control of human trophoblast function. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007;5:620.
  • 75
    Role DPA. of redox in fetal development and neonatal disease. Antiox Redox Signal. 2004;6:147153.
  • 76
    Jauniaux E, Poston L, Burton GJ. Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12:747755.
  • 77
    Tejero E, Perichart O, Pfeffer F, Casanueva E, Vadillo-Ortega F. Collagen synthesis during pregnancy, vitamin C availability, and risk of premature rupture of fetal membranes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;81:2934.
  • 78
    Casanueva E, Ripoll C, Tolentino M, et al. Vitamin C supplementation to prevent premature rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:859863.
  • 79
    Palis J, Segel JB. Developmental biology of erythropoiesis. Blood Rev. 1998;12:106114.
  • 80
    Peyssonnaux C, Zinkernagel AS, Schuepbach RA, Rankin E, et al. Regulation of iron homeostasis by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:19261932. (HIFs).
  • 81
    Simpson RJ, McKie AT. Regulation of intestinal iron absorption: the mucosa takes control? Cell Metab. 2009;10:8487.
  • 82
    Zhang AS, Enns CA. Molecular mechanisms of normal iron homeostasis. Hematology. Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2009:207214.
  • 83
    Zhong-Ming Q, Mei WX, Ming F, et al. Divalent metal transporter 1 is a hypoxia-inducible gene. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:15961603.
  • 84
    Qian ZM, Mei Wu X, Fan M, et al. Divalent metal transporter 1 is a hypoxia-inducible gene. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:15961603.
  • 85
    Pringle KG, Kind KL, Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Thompson JG, Roberts CT. Beyond oxygen: complex regulation and activity of hypoxia inducible factors in pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:415431.
  • 86
    Li YQ, Yan H, Bai B. Change in iron transporter expression in human term placenta with different maternal iron status. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;140:4854.
  • 87
    Gambling L, Danzeisen R, Gair S, et al. Effect of iron deficiency on placental transfer of iron and expression of iron transport proteins in vivo and in vitro. Biochem J. 2001;356:883889.
  • 88
    Bradley J, Leibold EA, Harris ZL, et al. Influence of gestational age and fetal iron status on IRP activity and iron transporter protein expression in third-trimester human placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R894R901.
  • 89
    Cindrova-Davies T. Gabor Than Award Lecture 2008: pre-eclampsia – from placental oxidative stress to maternal endothelial dysfunction. Placenta. 2009;30(Suppl A):S55S65.
  • 90
    Heazell AE, Moll SJ, Jones CJ, Baker PN, Crocker IP. Formation of syncytial knots is increased by hyperoxia, hypoxia and reactive oxygen species. Placenta. 2007;28(Suppl):S33S40.
  • 91
    Myatt L, Cui X. Oxidative stress in the placenta. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:369382.
  • 92
    Tuuli MG, Longtine MS, Nelson DM. Review: oxygen and trophoblast biology – a source of controversy. Placenta. 2011;32(Suppl 2):109118.
  • 93
    Escudero C, Calle A. Hierro, oxígeno y desarrollo placentario en la genesis de la preeclampsia. Efectos de la altura en Ecuador. Rev Méd Chile. 2006;134:491498.
  • 94
    O'Brien KO, Zavaleta N, Abrams SA, Caulfield LE. Maternal iron status influences iron transfer to the fetus during the third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:924930.
  • 95
    Peña-Rosas JP, Viteri FE. Effects of routine oral iron supplementation with or without folic acid for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3):CD004736.
  • 96
    Peña-Rosas JP, Viteri FE. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD004736.
  • 97
    Chaparro CM. Timing of umbilical cord clamping: effect on iron endowment of the newborn and later iron status. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(Suppl. 1):S30S36.
  • 98
    King JC. The risk of maternal nutritional depletion and poor outcomes increases in early or closely spaced pregnancies. J Nutr. 2003;133:1732S1736S.
  • 99
    Bekri S, Gual P, Anty R, et al. Increased adipose tissue expression of hepcidin in severe obesity is independent from diabetes and NASH. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:788796.
  • 100
    Luciani N, Brasse-Lagnel C, Poli M, et al. Hemojuvelin: a new link between obesity and iron. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:15451551.
  • 101
    Jensen CL. Effects of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;6(Suppl):S1452S1457.
  • 102
    Coletta JM, Bell SJ, Roman AS. Omega-3 fatty acids and pregnancy. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2010;3:163171.
  • 103
    Hoppe M, Sjöberg A, Hallberg L, Hulthén L. Iron status in Swedish teenage girls: impact of low dietary iron bioavailability. Nutrition. 2008;24:638645.
  • 104
    Hallberg L, Hulthén L, Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Lindstedt G. Iron balance in menstruating women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:200207.
  • 105
    Titaley CR, Dibley MJ, Roberts CL, Agho K. Combined iron/folic acid supplements and malaria prophylaxis reduce neonatal mortality in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:843847.
  • 106
    Toldi G, Stenczer B, Molvarec A, et al. Hepcidin concentrations and iron homeostasis in preeclampsia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:14231426.
  • 107
    Pérès JM, Bureau F, Neuville D, Arhan P, Bouglé D. Inhibition of zinc absorption by iron depends on their ratio. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;15:237241.
  • 108
    Anetor JI, Ajose OA, Adeleke FN, Olaniyan-Taylor GO, Fasola FA. Depressed antioxidant status in pregnant women on iron supplements: pathologic and clinical correlates. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;136:157170.
  • 109
    Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:13691373.
  • 110
    Christian P. Micronutrients, birth weight, and survival. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010;30:83104.
  • 111
    Dalmiya N, Darnton-Hill I, Schultink W, Schrimpton R, eds. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing country settings. SCN Nutrition Policy paper No. 22. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(Suppl):S477S573.
  • 112
    Bhutta ZA, Ahmed T, Black RE, et al. What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Lancet. 2008;371:417440.
  • 113
    Palmer AC, Stewart CP. Micronutrients, health and development: Evidence-based programs. A report of the 2nd International Meeting of the Micronutrient Forum. Sight and Life Magazine. 2009;1:1625.
  • 114
    Scholl TO. Maternal iron status: Relation to fetal growth, length of gestation, and iron endowment of the neonate. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(Suppl. 1):S23S29.
  • 115
    Viteri FE, Berger J. Importance of pre-pregnancy and pregnancy iron status: can long-term weekly preventive iron and folic acid supplementation achieve desirable and safe status? Nutr Rev. 2005;63(Suppl):S65S76.
  • 116
    Cavalli-Sforza T, Smitasiri S, Khan NC, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status. Nutr Rev. 2005;63(Suppl):S95S108.
  • 117
    Cavalli-Sforza T, Berger J, Viteri F. Weekly iron–folic acid supplementation of women of reproductive age: impact overview, lessons learned, expansion plans, and contributions toward achievement of the millennium development goals. Nutr Rev. 2005;63(Suppl):S152S158. Erratum in: Nutr Rev. 2006;64:92.
  • 118
    World Health Organization. Weekly iron–folic acid supplementation (WIFS) in women of reproductive age: its role in promoting optimal maternal and child health. Position statement. Geneva, World Health Organization 2009.
  • 119
    Preziosi P, Prual A, Galan P, Daouda H, Boureima H, Hercberg S. Effect of iron supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women: consequences for newborns. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:11781182.
  • 120
    Huy ND, Hop LT, Schrimpton R, Hoa CV. An effectiveness trial of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in Vietnam: impact on birth weight and of stunting in children at around 2 years of age. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(Suppl):S506S516.
  • 121
    Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T. Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(Suppl):S34S43; Discussion S72–S91.
  • 122
    Barker DJP. The fetal origins of adult disease. Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review. 1994;6:7180.
  • 123
    Walter PB, Knutson MD, Paler-Martinez A, et al. Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:22642269.
  • 124
    King SM, Donangelo CM, Knutson MD, et al. Daily supplementation with iron increases lipid peroxidation in young women with low iron stores. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:701707.
  • 125
    Stein TP, Scholl TO, Schluter MD, et al. Oxidative stress early in pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:841848.
  • 126
    Casanueva E, Viteri FE. Iron and oxidative stress in pregnancy. J Nutr. 2003;133(Suppl):S1700S1708.
  • 127
    Peña-Rosas JP, De-Regil LM, Dowswell T, Viteri FE. Effectiveness of intermittent iron and folic acid supplementation regimens for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011:DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub3.
  • 128
    Moss AJ, Monset-Couchard M. Placental transfusion: early versus late clamping of the umbilical cord. Pediatrics. 1967;40:109126.
  • 129
    Mercer JS, Vohr BR, McGrath MM, Padbury JF, Wallach M, Oh W. Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2006;117:12351242.
  • 130
    Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, Otaño L, Ferreira M, Ricci C, Casas O, Giordano D, Lardizábal J. The effect of timing of cord clamping on neonatal venous hematocrit values and clinical outcome at term: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117:779786.
  • 131
    Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, et al. Efecto del clampeo demorado del cordón umbilical en la ferritina sérica a los seis meses de vida. Estudio clínico controlado aleatorizado. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2010;108:201208.
  • 132
    Grajeda R, Pérez-Escamilla R, Dewey KG. Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord improves hematologic status of Guatemalan infants at 2 mo of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:425431.
  • 133
    Chaparro CM, Neufeld LM, Tena Alavez G, Eguia-Líz Cedillo R, Dewey KG. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;367:19972004.
  • 134
    van Rheenen P, Brabin BJ. Late umbilical cord-clamping as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in term infants in developing and industrialised countries: a systematic review. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2004;24:316.
  • 135
    Mercer J, Erickson-Owens D. Delayed cord clamping increases infants' iron stores. Lancet. 2006;17:19561958.
  • 136
    Sakkas D, Alvarez JG. Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis. Modern Trends. 2010;93:10271036.
  • 137
    Acharyya S, Kanjilal S, Bhattacharyya AK. Does human sperm nuclear DNA integrity affect embryo quality? Indian J Exp Biol. 2005;43:10161022.
  • 138
    Young SS, Eskenazi B, Marchetti FM, Block G, Wyrobek AJ. The association of folate, zinc and antioxidant intake with sperm aneuploidy in healthy non-smoking men. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:10141022.
  • 139
    Min Y-I, Correa-Villaseñor A, Stewart PA. Parental occupational lead exposure and low birth weight. Am J Ind Med. 1996;30:569578.
  • 140
    Fraga CG, Motchnik PA, Shigenaga MK, Helbock HJ, Jacob RA, Ames BN. Ascorbic acid protects against endogenous oxidative DNA damage in human sperm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991;88:1100311006.
  • 141
    Goel P, Radotra A, Singh I, Aggarwal A, Dua D. Effects of passive smoking on outcome in pregnancy. J Postgrad Med. 2004;50:1216.