SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, et al. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60:277300.
  • 2
    Kushi LH, Byers T, Doyle C, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56:254281.
  • 3
    Davis CD, Milner JA. Gastrointestinal microflora, food components and colon cancer prevention. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:743752.
  • 4
    Bosscher D, Breynaert A, Pieters L, et al. Food-based strategies to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and their associated health effects. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(Suppl 6):511.
  • 5
    Sobhani I, Tap J, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Microbial dysbiosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. PLoS One. 2011;6:e16393.
  • 6
    Shen XJ, Rawls JF, Randall T, et al. Molecular characterization of mucosal adherent bacteria and associations with colorectal adenomas. Gut Microbes. 2010;1:138147.
  • 7
    Wang T, Cai G, Qiu Y, et al. Structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers. ISME J. 2011;6:320329.
  • 8
    Coakley M, Banni S, Johnson MC, et al. Inhibitory effect of conjugated α-linolenic acid from bifidobacteria of intestinal origin on SW480 cancer cells. Lipids. 2009;44:249256.
  • 9
    Kim Y, Lee D, Kim D, et al. Inhibition of proliferation in colon cancer cell lines and harmful enzyme activity of colon bacteria by Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:468473.
  • 10
    Kumar A, Singh NK, Sinha PR. Inhibition of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon genotoxicity in rats by the administration of probiotic curd. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:13731376.
  • 11
    Kumar M, Kumar A, Nagpal R, et al. Cancer-preventing attributes of probiotics: an update. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010;61:473496.
  • 12
    Smith EA, Macfarlane GT. Enumeration of human colonic bacteria producing phenolic and indolic compounds: effects of pH, carbohydrate availability and retention time on dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism. J Appl Microbiol. 1996;81:288302.
  • 13
    Gibson GR, Beatty ER, Wang X, et al. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:975982.
  • 14
    Cummings JH. Dietary carbohydrates and the colonic microflora. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:409414.
  • 15
    Roberfroid M. Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr. 2007;137(Suppl 2):S830S837.
  • 16
    Roberfroid MB. Introducing inulin-type fructans. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(Suppl 1):S13S25.
  • 17
    Sabater-Molina M, Larqué E, Torrella F, et al. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem. 2009;65:315328.
  • 18
    Kruse H-P, Kleessen B, Blaut M. Effects of inulin on faecal bifidobacteria in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 1999;82:375382.
  • 19
    Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo J, et al. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev. 2004;17:259275.
  • 20
    Tuohy KM, Ziemer CJ, Klinder A, et al. A human volunteer study to determine the prebiotic effects of lactulose powder on human colonic microbiota. Microbial Ecol Health Dis. 2002;14:165173.
  • 21
    Ballongue J, Schumann C, Quignon P. Effects of lactulose and lactitol on colonic microflora and enzymatic activity. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1997;222:4144.
  • 22
    Bouhnik Y, Attar A, Joly FA, et al. Lactulose ingestion increases faecal bifidobacterial counts: a randomised double-blind study in healthy humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:462466.
  • 23
    Champ M, Langkilde AM, Brouns F, et al. Advances in dietary fibre characterisation. 2. consumption, chemistry, physiology and measurement of resistant starch; implications for health and food labelling. Nutr Res Rev. 2003;16:143161.
  • 24
    Bouhnik Y, Raskine L, Simoneau G, et al. The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:16581664.
  • 25
    Kleessen B, Stoof G, Proll J, et al. Feeding resistant starch affects fecal and cecal microflora and short-chain fatty acids in rats. J Anim Sci. 1997;75:24532462.
  • 26
    Martínez I, Kim J, Duffy PR, et al. Resistant starches types 2 and 4 have differential effects on the composition of the fecal microbiota in human subjects. PLoS One. 2010;5:e15046.
  • 27
    Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT, Cummings JH. Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:701714.
  • 28
    Marteau P, Boutron-Ruault MC. Nutritional advantages of probiotics and prebiotics. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(Suppl 2):S153S157.
  • 29
    Cassidy A, Bingham SA, Cummings JH. Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:937942.
  • 30
    Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, et al. Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:13471352.
  • 31
    Hsu C-K, Liao J-W, Chung Y-C, et al. Xylooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides affect the intestinal microbiota and precancerous colonic lesion development in rats. J Nutr. 2004;134:15231528.
  • 32
    De Preter V, Geboes K, Verbrugghe K, et al. The in vivo use of the stable isotope-labelled biomarkers lactose-[15N]ureide and [2H4]tyrosine to assess the effects of pro- and prebiotics on the intestinal flora of healthy human volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:439446.
  • 33
    Hylla S, Gostner A, Dusel G, et al. Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:136142.
  • 34
    van Dokkum W, Wezendonk B, Srikumar TS, et al. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53:17.
  • 35
    Rafter J, Bennett M, Caderni G, et al. Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:488496.
  • 36
    Alles MS, Hartemink R, Meyboom S, et al. Effect of transgalactooligosaccharides on the composition of the human intestinal microflora and on putative risk markers for colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:980991.
  • 37
    Bouhnik Y, Flourié B, Riottot M, et al. Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion on fecal bifidobacteria and selected metabolic indexes of colon carcinogenesis in healthy humans. Nutr Cancer. 1996;26:2129.
  • 38
    Heijnen ML, van Amelsvoort JM, Deurenberg P, et al. Limited effect of consumption of uncooked (RS2) or retrograded (RS3) resistant starch on putative risk factors for colon cancer in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:322331.
  • 39
    Kleessen B, Sykura B, Zunft HJ, et al. Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:13971402.
  • 40
    Takayama T, Katsuki S, Takahashi Y, et al. Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:12771284.
  • 41
    Freeman A, Morris LS, Mills AD, et al. Minichromosome maintenance proteins as biological markers of dysplasia and malignancy. Clin Cancer Res. 1999;5:21212132.
  • 42
    Kubben FJ, Peeters-Haesevoets A, Engels LG, et al. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation. Gut. 1994;35:530535.
  • 43
    Hanna-Morris A, Badvie S, Cohen P, et al. Minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) is a stronger discriminator of increased proliferation in mucosa adjacent to colorectal cancer than Ki-67. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:325330.
  • 44
    Nyström M, Mutanen M. Diet and epigenetics in colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:257263.
  • 45
    Srivastava S, Verma M, Henson DE. Biomarkers for early detection of colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:11181126.
  • 46
    Esteller M, Herman JG. Cancer as an epigenetic disease: DNA methylation and chromatin alterations in human tumours. J Pathol. 2002;196:17.
  • 47
    Rafter JJ. Scientific basis of biomarkers and benefits of functional foods for reduction of disease risk: cancer. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(Suppl 2):S219S224.
  • 48
    Pearson JR, Gill CIR, Rowland IR. Diet, fecal water, and colon cancer – development of a biomarker. Nutr Rev. 2009;67:509526.
  • 49
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. The Associations between Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer (October 2010 ). 2010:Available at: http://www.wcrf.org/PDFs/Colorectal-cancer-CUP-report-2010.pdf. Accessed 1 August 2011.
  • 50
    Corpet DE, Taché S. Most effective colon cancer chemopreventive agents in rats: a systematic review of aberrant crypt foci and tumor data, ranked by potency. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43:121.
  • 51
    Asano T, McLeod RS. Dietary fibre for the prevention of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD003430.
  • 52
    American Dietetic Association. American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Manual . 2005:Avaliable at: http://www.adaevidencelibrary.com/topic.cfm?cat=1155. Updated 2010. Accessed 10 February 2011.
  • 53
    Richardson WS, Wilson MC, Nishikawa J, et al. The well-built clinical question: a key to evidence-based decisions. ACP J Club. 1995;123:A12A13.
  • 54
    Langlands SJ, Hopkins MJ, Coleman N, et al. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel. Gut. 2004;53:16101616.
  • 55
    Limburg PJ, Mahoney MR, Ziegler KLA, et al. Randomized phase II trial of sulindac, atorvastatin, and prebiotic dietary fiber for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:259269.
  • 56
    Roncucci L, Di Donato P, Carati L, et al. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose for the prevention of the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:227234.
  • 57
    Burn J, Bishop DT, Mecklin JP, et al. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:25672578.
  • 58
    Dronamraju SS, Coxhead JM, Kelly SB, et al. Cell kinetics and gene expression changes in colorectal cancer patients given resistant starch: a randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2009;58:413420.
  • 59
    Grubben MJAL, Braak CCM, Essenberg M, et al. Effect of resistant starch on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in patients with colonic adenomas: a controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:750756.
  • 60
    van Gorkom BAP, Karrenbeld A, van der Sluis T, et al. Calcium or resistant starch does not affect colonic epithelial cell proliferation throughout the colon in adenoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43:3138.
  • 61
    Wacker M, Wanek P, Eder E, et al. Effect of enzyme-resistant starch on formation of 1, N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa of healthy volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:915920.
  • 62
    Worthley DL, Le Leu RK, Whitehall VL, et al. A human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation: effects on luminal, inflammatory, epigenetic, and epithelial biomarkers of colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:578586.
  • 63
    de Leon MP, Roncucci L, Di Donato P, et al. Pattern of epithelial cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa of normal subjects and of patients with adenomatous polyps or cancer of the large bowel. Cancer Res. 1988;48:41214126.
  • 64
    Evan GI, Vousden KH. Proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in cancer. Nature. 2001;411:342348.
  • 65
    Crim KC, Sanders LM, Hong MY, et al. Upregulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 expression in vivo by butyrate administration can be chemoprotective or chemopromotive depending on the lipid component of the diet. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:14151420.
  • 66
    Macfarlane GT, Gibson GR. Carbohydrate fermentation, energy transduction and gas metabolism in the human large intestine. In: Mackie RI, White BA, Isaacson RE, eds. Gastrointestinal Microbiology: Gastrointestinal Ecosystems and Fermentations. Vol. 1. New York: Chapman & Hall; 1997:269.
  • 67
    Hu S, Dong TS, Dalal SR, et al. The microbe-derived short chain fatty acid butyrate targets miRNA-dependent p21 gene expression in human colon cancer. PLoS One. 2011;6:e16221.