Many children may have insufficient serum concentrations of vitamin D, which could prevent optimal muscle development and function. Vitamin D deficiency in animal models results in negative effects on muscle fiber structure and calcium/phosphorus handling, suggesting an integral role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function. While there is a dearth of data in humans, the available evidence demonstrates a positive association between vitamin D status and muscle function. This review focuses on the important role of vitamin D in muscle function in children and adolescents who live in North American regions where exposure to ultraviolet B radiation is limited and who are thus at increased risk for vitamin D insufficiency. The effects of vitamin D on muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, muscle fiber structure, and calcium and phosphorus handling are discussed. Moreover, the roles of vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor and their genomic and nongenomic actions in muscle function are explored in depth. Future research should aim to establish a vitamin D status consistent with optimal musculoskeletal development and function in young children.