Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a lipophilic cofactor of the electron transport chain in the mitochondria, can be synthesized endogenously or provided by food. The aim of this review is to summarize the in vitro cell culture studies, the in vivo animal studies, and the human studies investigating the impact of CoQ supplementation on the occurrence of obesity and related disorders (diabetes, hypertension, lipemia, and atherosclerosis). The antioxidative properties of CoQ have been observed in different experimental models of atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. The recent discovery of the anti-inflammatory effect of CoQ, mostly described in vitro, has generated increased interest in CoQ supplementation, but it needs to be confirmed in vivo in pathological situations. CoQ intervention studies in humans failed to show reproducible effects on body weight, fat mass, or glycemia, but CoQ supplementation does seem to have an antihypertensive effect. The molecular mechanism to explain this effect has only recently been discovered.