• 1
    Dugas JP, Oosthuizen U, Tucker R, et al. Rates of fluid ingestion alter pacing but not thermoregulatory responses during prolonged exercise in hot and humid conditions with appropriate convective cooling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:6980.
  • 2
    Goulet ED. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on time-trial exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:11491156.
  • 3
    Zouhal H, Groussard C, Minter G, et al. Inverse relationship between percentage body weight change and finishing time in 643 forty-two-kilometre marathon runners. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:11011105.
  • 4
    Cheuvront SN, Carter R 3rd, Sawka MN. Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2003;2:202208.
  • 5
    Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:377390.
  • 6
    Murray R. Dehydration, hyperthermia, and athletes: science and practice. J Athl Train. 1996;31:248252.
  • 7
    Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:ivii.
  • 8
    Mündel T. To drink or not to drink? Explaining “contradictory findings” in fluid replacement and exercise performance: evidence from a more valid model for real-life competition. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:2.
  • 9
    Abbiss CR, Straker L, Quod MJ, et al. Examining pacing profiles in elite female road cyclists using exposure variation analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:437442.
  • 10
    Angus SD, Waterhouse BJ. Pacing strategy from high frequency field data: more evidence for neural regulation? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:24052411.
  • 11
    Lambert MI, Dugas JP, Kirkman MC, et al. Changes in running speeds in a 100 km ultra-marathon race. JSSM. 2004;3:167173.
  • 12
    Thomas K, Stone MR, Thompson KG, et al. Reproducibility of pacing strategy during simulated 20-km cycling time trials in well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:223229.
  • 13
    Currell K, Jeukendrup AE. Validity, reliability and sensitivity of measures of sporting performance. Sports Med. 2008;38:297316.
  • 14
    Amann M, Hopkins WG, Marcora SM. Similar sensitivity of time to exhaustion and time–trial time to changes in endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:574578.
  • 15
    Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, et al. Interval training program optimization in highly trained endurance cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34:18011807.
  • 16
    Bachle L, Eckerson J, Albertson L, et al. The effect of fluid replacement on endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15:217224.
  • 17
    Backx K, van Someren KA, Palmer GS. One hour cycling performance is not affected by ingested fluid volume. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:333342.
  • 18
    Kay D, Marino EF. Failure of fluid ingestion to improve self-paced exercise performance in moderate-to-warm humid environments. J Therm Biol. 2003;28:2934.
  • 19
    Robinson TA, Hawley JA, Palmer GS, et al. Water ingestion does not improve 1-h cycling performance in moderate ambient temperatures. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1995;71:153160.
  • 20
    Sharwood KA, Collins M, Goedecke JH, et al. Weight changes, medical complications, and performance during an Ironman triathlon. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:718724.
  • 21
    Kao WF, Shyu CL, Yang XW, et al. Athletic performance and serial weight changes during 12- and 24-hour ultra-marathons. Clin J Sport Med. 2008;18:155158.
  • 22
    Pugh LG, Corbett JL, Johnson RH. Rectal temperatures, weight losses, and sweat rates in marathon running. J Appl Physiol. 1967;23:347352.
  • 23
    Beis LY, Wright-Whyte M, Fudge B, et al. Drinking behaviors of elite male runners during marathon competition. Clin J Sport Med. 2012;22:254261.
  • 24
    Maughan RJ, Watson P, Evans GH, et al. Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17:583594.
  • 25
    Gigou PY, Lamontagne-Lacasse M, Goulet EDB. Meta-analysis of the effects of pre-exercise hypohydration on endurance performance, lactate threshold and VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:361362.
  • 26
    Casa DJ, Stearns RL, Lopez RM, et al. Influence of hydration on physiological function and performance during trail running in the heat. J Athl Train. 2010;45:147156.
  • 27
    Armstrong LE, Soto JA, Hacker FT Jr, et al. Urinary indices during dehydration, exercise, and rehydration. Int J Sport Nutr. 1998;8:345355.
  • 28
    Valtin H. “Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.” Really? Is there scientific evidence for “8 × 8”? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R993R1004.
  • 29
    Brown MB, McCarty NA, Millard-Stafford M. High-sweat Na+ in cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals does not diminish thirst during exercise in the heat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R1177R1185.
  • 30
    Phillips PA, Rolls BJ, Ledingham JG, et al. Osmotic thirst and vasopressin release in humans: a double-blind crossover study. Am J Physiol. 1985;248(Pt 2):R645R650.
  • 31
    Goulet ED, Rousseau SF, Lamboley CR, et al. Pre-exercise hyperhydration delays dehydration and improves endurance capacity during 2 h of cycling in a temperate climate. J Physiol Anthropol. 2008;27:263271.
  • 32
    Gigou PY, Dion T, Asselin A, et al. Pre-exercise hyperhydration-induced bodyweight gain does not alter prolonged treadmill running time-trial performance in warm ambient conditions. Nutrients. 2012 (accepted for publication).
  • 33
    Daries HN, Noakes TD, Dennis SC. Effect of fluid intake volume on 2-h running performances in a 25 degrees C environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:17831789.
  • 34
    Rollo I, Williams C. Effect of mouth-rinsing carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance. Sports Med. 2011;41:449461.