Shrimp polyculture is not yet a common practice among farmers; however, this activity represents an important alternative to solving and/or minimizing some of the problems that shrimp aquaculture has faced in the past two decades (environmental pollution, diseases and decreasing prices). In this context, many benefits have been achieved with some polyculture practices. Several species from diverse trophic levels have the potential to be co-cultured with shrimps. A good knowledge of the species that are candidates for polyculture and an adequately designed culture system are the most important points to consider when co-culturing shrimp with other species. The present paper is a review of the past, present and future of shrimp polyculture with other organisms.