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Keywords:

  • alien species;
  • culture;
  • impact assessment;
  • invasiveness;
  • risks;
  • unauthorized culture

Abstract

There has been an increasing demand for alien fish species in India. However, environmental, socioeconomic and biodiversity issues are important considerations when regulating the unauthorized culture and spread of alien species. Information collected in the present review revealed the presence of over 300 alien species imported intentionally or illegally; 291 ornamental species, 31 aquaculture species and two larvicidal fishes. Field data demonstrated the widespread occurrence of some of the world’s worst invasive species, for example, Cyprinus carpio, Oreochromis niloticus, Aristichthys nobilis, Pygocentrus nattereri and Pterygoplichthys spp., in inland waters; other species are emerging as a threat to aquatic biodiversity. The benefits and risks of alien species were analysed and the impact was quantified using a simple developed ‘Fish Invasiveness Screening Test’ (FIST). Our information suggests that alien species, despite possessing some attractive culture characteristics, generally reduce the availability of local species and establish in natural water bodies becoming invasive and consequently adversely affecting fish biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems. In light of the adverse ecological impacts of alien species, we developed strategic regulations and quarantine procedures and advised aquaculturists to strictly follow them to contain potential and plausible menaces.