Abstract: A cross-sectional study of the sun-related attitudes and beliefs of 3 655 children in Grades 7 to 11 attending 55 representative Queensland schools was undertaken using a structured questionnaire administered at school. Factors derived from a series of focus groups were incorporated into the questionnaire. Knowledge about risk factors in the aetiology of skin cancer and the role of protective measures was high. Several potential barriers to the use of sun protection were identified, including the desire to be tanned, the perceived attitudes of the peer group to sun protection, and difficulties with the use of specific sun protection measures. In general, these barriers were significantly more prominent among boys and children from older grades than other students. These data will be used to design school-based sun protection interventions which are sensitive to these age and sex differences.