SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Lord SR, Sinnett PF. Femoral neck fractures: admissions, bed use, outcome and projections. Med J Aust 1986; 145: 4936.
  • 2
    Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC, O'Dowd KJ. Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol Rev 1985; 7: 178208.
  • 3
    Melton LJ, Kan SH, Wahner HW, Riggs BL. Lifetime fracture risk: an approach to hip fracture risk assessment based on bone mineral density and age. J Clin Epidemiol 1988; 41: 98594.
  • 4
    Al-Azzawi F., Hart DM, Lindsay R. Long term effect of oestrogen replacement therapy on bone mass as measured by dual photon absorptiometry. BMJ 1987; 294: 12612.
  • 5
    Lindsay R., Hart DM, MacLean A., Clark AC, et al. Bone response to termination of oestrogen treatment. Lancet 1978; 1: 13257.
  • 6
    Ettinger B., Genant HK, Cann CE. Long-term estrogen replacement therapy prevents bone loss and fractures. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 31924.
  • 7
    Quigley ME, Martin PL, Burnier AM, Brooks P. Estrogen therapy arrests bone loss in elderly women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 156: 151623.
  • 8
    Horsman A., Nordin BEC, Crilly RG. Effect on bone of withdrawal of oestrogen therapy. Lancet 1979; July 7, 33.
  • 9
    Law MR, Wald NJ, Meade TW. Strategies for prevention of osteoporosis and hip fracture. BMJ 1991; 303: 4539.
  • 10
    Weinstein MC, Schiff I. Cost-eftectiveness of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1983; 38: 44555.
  • 11
    Tosteson ANA, Rosenthal DI, Melton J., Weinstein MC. Cost effectiveness of screening perimenopausal white women for osteoporosis: bone densitometry and hormone replacement therapy. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 594603.
  • 12
    Daly E., Roche M., Barlow D., Gray A., et al. HRT: an analysis of benefits, risks and costs. Br Med Bull 1992; 48: 368400.
  • 13
    Cheung AP, Wren BG. A cost-effectiveness analysis of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause. Med J Aust 1992; 56: 31216.
  • 14
    Prince RL, Smith M., Dick IM, Price RI, et al. Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 118994.
  • 15
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1991 deaths in Australia. Cat. no. 3302.0 Canberra: ABS, 1992.
  • 16
    J. Hollenberg. SMLTREE software, Version 2.9. 445 E 68th St, Box 20, New York, 1989.
  • 17
    Perth Monica Data Book 1984–1990. Perth: University of Western Australia, 1992.
  • 18
    Reznik RB, Goldstein GB, Ring I., Berry G. The determination of the incidence of acute myocardial infarction from hospital morbidity records. J Chron Dis 1984; 37: 73342.
  • 19
    Schofield MJ, Hennrikus DJ, Redman S., Sanson-Fisher RW. Prevalence and characteristics of women who have had a hysterectomy in a community survey. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1991; 31: 1538.
  • 20
    Selwood T., Wood C. Incidence of hysterectomy in Australia. Med J Aust 1978; 2: 2014.
  • 21
    Hunt K. Long-term effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Br J Hosp Med 1987; 38: 45164.
  • 22
    Endometrial alterations induced by estrogens and oral contraceptives. In: BlausteinA. Interpretation of biopsy of endometrium. New York: Raven Press, 1980: 13966.
  • 23
    Lobo RA, Cardiovascular implications of estrogen replacement therapy. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 75: 1825S.
  • 24
    Henderson BE, Ross RK, Lobo RA, Pike MC, Mack TM. Re-evaluating the role of progestogen therapy after the menopause. Fertil Steril 1988; 49: 915S.
  • 25
    Collins J., Donner A., Allen LH, Adams O. Oestrogen use and survival in endometrial cancer. Lancet 1980; 2: 9614.
  • 26
    Paganini-Hill A., Ross RK, Henderson BE. Postmenopausal oestrogen treatment and stroke: a prospective study. BMJ 1988; 297: 51922.
  • 27
    Wilson PWF, Garrison RJ, Castelli WP. Postmenopausal estrogen use, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular morbidity in women over 50. New Engl J Med 1985; 313: 103843.
  • 28
    Pfeffer RI, van den Noort S. Estrogen use and stroke risk in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 103: 44556.
  • 29
    Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1991; 20: 4763.
  • 30
    Brinton LA, Hoover R., Fraumeni Jr JF. Menopausal oestrogens and breast cancer risk: an expanded case-control study. Br J Cancer 1986; 54: 82532.
  • 31
    Bergkvist L., Adami H., Persson I., Hoover R., Schairer C. Risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 2937.
  • 32
    Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A., Gerkins VR, Mack TM, et al. A case-control study of menopausal estrogen therapy and breast cancer. JAMA 1980; 243: 16359.
  • 33
    Key TJA, Pike MC. Role of oestrogens and progestagens in the epidemiology and prevention of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988; 24: 2943.
  • 34
    Mack TM, Ross RK. A current perception of HRT risks and benefits. In: DeLucaHF, MazessR., editors. Osteoporosis: physiological basis, assessment and treatment. New York: Elsevier Science, 1990: 16178.
  • 35
    Grady D., Rubin SM, Petitti DB, Fox CS, et al. Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 101637.
  • 36
    Steinberg KK, Thacker SB, Smith SJ, Stroup DF, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1991, 265: 198590.
  • 37
    Cummings SR, Browner W., Ettinger Should prescription of postmenopausal hormone therapy be based on the results of bone densitometry Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 5657.
  • 38
    Whitehead MI, Hillard BM, Crook D. The role and use of progestagens. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 75: 5976S.
  • 39
    Weiss NS, Ure CL, Ballard JH, Williams AR, Daling JR. Decreased risk of fractures of the hip and lower forearm with postmenopausal use of estrogen. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 11958.
  • 40
    Hutchinson TA, Polansky SM, Feinstein AR. Postmenopausal oestrogens protect against fractures of hip and distal radius. Lancet 1979; 2: 7059.
  • 41
    Johnson RE, Specht EE. The risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal females with and without estrogen drug exposure. Am J Public Health 1981; 71: 13844.
  • 42
    Paganini-Hill A., Ross RK, Gerkins VR, Henderson BE, et al. Menopausal estrogen therapy and hip fractures. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 2831.
  • 43
    Kiel D., Felson D., Anderson J., Wilson W., Moskowitz M. Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1987; 319: 116974.
  • 44
    Ravnikar VA. Compliance with hormone therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 156: 13324.
  • 45
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Health expenditure bulletin. Canberra: AIHW, 1992.
  • 46
    KPMG Peat Marwick. National costing study. Production of cost weights for AN-DRGs, version 1. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health, Housing, Local Government and Community Services. 1993.
  • 47
    Butler JRG, Fumival CM, Hart RFG. Do treatment costs vary by stage of detection? Working paper no. 18. Canberra: NCEPH, Australian National University, 1990.
  • 48
    Drummond MF, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • 49
    Goodin RE. Discounting discounting. J Public Policy 1982; 2: 5372.
  • 50
    Pearce DW, Turner RK. Economics of natural resources and the environment. Sussex: Wheatsheaf, 1990: 21125.
  • 51
    Hockey RL, Hobbs MST, Goldswain PRT. Femoral neck fractures in Western Australia 1971–1988. Public Health Association of Australia Annual Conference, 1990 (abstract).
  • 52
    Drummond M., Torrance G., Mason J. Cost-effectiveness league tables: more harm than good Soc Sci Med 1993; 37: 3340.
  • 53
    Hatziandreu E., Koplan J., Weinstein MC; Casperson CJ, Warner KE. A cost-effectiveness analysis of exercise as a health promotion activity. Am J Public Health 1988; 78: 141721.
  • 54
    Cooper C., Barker DJP, Morris J., Briggs RSJ. Osteoporosis, falls, age in fracture of the proximal femur. BMJ 1987; 295: 1315.
  • 55
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. JAMA 1990; 263: 6658.
  • 56
    Fuchs V. Though much is taken–reflections on aging, health, and medical care. Milbank Mem Fund Q 1984; 62: 14355.
  • 57
    Grisso J., Kelsey JL, Strom BL, Chin GY, et al. Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 132631.