Analysis of primary prevention services for cardiovascular disease in Australia's community pharmacies


Correspondence to:
Dr Andrew W. Joyce, School of Pharmacy and School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845. Fax: (08) 9266 2958; e-mail:


Objective: To analyse the prevalence and factors associated with the provision of primary preventive services for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia's community pharmacies.

Methods: The data were from the 2002 Australia's National Pharmacy Database Project. Questionnaires were completed by a nationally representative 1,131 out of a possible 1,391 pharmacies (81.3% response rate), stratified into PhARIA (remoteness) zones. Preventive services for CVD were analysed by frequency of provision of services. Ordinal analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to ascertain predictors of services.

Results: Most community pharmacies initiated nicotine replacement therapies, 58.1% provided blood pressure screening, 11.6% anthropometric tests and 7.6% blood cholesterol screening. Pharmacies in promotional groups, having high customer numbers, an enclosed counselling area, or forward pharmacy area, were significantly associated with providing preventive services for CVD.

Conclusions and Implication: The configuration and size of Australia's community pharmacies were associated with providing primary preventive services for CVD.