• 1
    World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]. Geneva (CHE): WHO; 2008 [cited 2008 May 20]. Diabetes Programme Facts and Figures: Country and Regional Data. Available from:
  • 2
    ADA. Economic consequences of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. in 1997. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(2):296309.
  • 3
    Twigg SM, Kamp MC, Davis TM, Neylon EK, Flack JR. Prediabetes: a position statement from the Australian Diabetes Society and Australian Diabetes Educators Association. Med J Aust. 2007;186(9):4615.
  • 4
    Gillies CL, Abrams KR, Lambert PC, Cooper NJ, Sutton AJ, Hsu RT, et al. Pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;334(299).
  • 5
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Schmid CH, Lau J. Long-term non-pharmacological weight loss interventions for adults with prediabetes (Cochrane Review): In: The Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2, 2005. p. 180. Oxford ( UK ): Update Software; 2005.
  • 6
    Padwal R, Majumdar SR, Johnson JA, Varney J, McAlister FA. A systematic review of drug therapy to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):73644.
  • 7
    Yamaoka K, Tango T. Efficacy of Lifestyle Education to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(11):27806.
  • 8
    Yates T, Khunti K, Bull F, Gorely T, Davies MJ. The role of physical activity in the management of impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review. Diabetologia. 2007;50:111626.
  • 9
    Van de Laar FA, Lucassen PLBJ, Akkermans RP, Van de Lisdonk EH, De Grauw WJC. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose (Cochrane Review): In: The Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 4, 2006. Oxford ( UK ): Update Software; 2006.
  • 10
    Padwal R, Laupacis A. Antihypertensive Therapy and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):24755.
  • 11
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Bowman B, Schmid CH, et al. Long-Term Effectiveness of Weight-Loss Interventions in Adults with Pre-Diabetes. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(1):12639.
  • 12
    Knoll T, Narayan S, Coven A, Kmoch J, Byer S, Williams R, et al. Adobe Photoshop CS3. 10 th ed. San Jose ( CA ): Adobe Systems; 2007.
  • 13
    RevMan: Review Manager [computer program]. 5.0 ed. Copenhagen ( DNK ): The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; 2008.
  • 14
    Higgins J, Altman D. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: HigginsJ, GreenS, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.0 [updated February 2008]. Cambridge ( UK ): The Cochrane Collaboration; 2008.
  • 15
    Haahr MT, Hrobjartsson A. Who is blinded in randomized clinical trials? A study of 200 trials and a survey of authors. Clin Trials. 2006;3(4):3605.
  • 16
    Fang Y, Li T, Chen S. Effect of medicine and non-medicine intervention on the outcomes of patients with impaired glucose tolerance – 5-year follow-up. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu. 2004;8:65623.
  • 17
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V. The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia. 2006;49(2):28997.
  • 18
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler S, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker E, et al. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393403.
  • 19
    Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9323):20727.
  • 20
    Diabetes Prevention Program [homepage on the Internet]. Rockville (MD): The Biostatistics Center, The George Washington University; 2001 May 18 [cited 2008 Apr 14]. Protocol for the Diabetes Prevention Program. Version 4.4. Available from:
  • 21
    Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Josse RG, Karasik A, Laakso M. The STOP-NIDDM Trial: an international study on the efficacy of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor to prevent type 2 diabetes in a population with impaired glucose tolerance: rationale, design, and preliminary screening data. Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(10):17205.
  • 22
    Diabetes Prevention Program [homepage on the Internet]. Rockville (MD): The Biostatistics Center, The George Washington University; 2006 July 5 [cited 2008 Apr 18]. Protocol for the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Available from:
  • 23
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):134350.
  • 24
    DPPRG. Effects of withdrawal from metformin on the development of diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):97780.
  • 25
    Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL, Lachin JM, Bray GA, Delahanty L, et al. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(9):21027.
  • 26
    Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: HigginsJ, GreenS, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Version 5.0.0. [updated February 2008]. Cambridge ( UK ): The Cochrane Collaboration; 2008.
  • 27
    Mühlhauser I, Kasper J, Meyer G, Federation of European Nurses in D. Understanding of diabetes prevention studies: questionnaire survey of professionals in diabetes care. Diabetologia. 2006;49(8):17426.
  • 28
    Tuomilehto J, Wareham N. Glucose lowering and diabetes prevention: are they the same?[see comment]. Lancet. 2006;368(9543):12189.
  • 29
    Unwin N, Shaw J, Zimmet P, Alberti KGMM. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia: the current status on definition and intervention. Diabet Med. 2002;19(9):70823.
  • 30
    Weyer C, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Metabolic characteristics of individuals with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 1999;48(11):2197203.
  • 31
    Tripathy D, Carlsson M, Almgren P, Isomaa B, Taskinen MR, Tuomi T, et al. Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in relation to glucose tolerance: lessons from the Botnia Study. Diabetes. 2000;49(6):97580.
  • 32
    Novoa FJ, Boronat M, Saavedra P, Diaz-Cremades JM, Varillas VF, La Roche F, et al. Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Secretion in Individuals With Normal Glucose Tolerance and in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Regulation: The Telde Study. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(10):238893.
  • 33
    Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. Impaired glucose tolerance is a more advanced stage of alteration in the glucose metabolism than impaired fasting glucose. J Diabetes Complicat. 2001;15(1):347.
  • 34
    Braith RW, Stewart KJ. Resistance Exercise Training: Its Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2006;113(22):264250.
  • 35
    Kriska AM, Edelstein SL, Hamman RF, Otto A, Bray GA, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. Physical Activity in Individuals at Risk for Diabetes: Diabetes Prevention Program. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(5):82632.
  • 36
    Delahanty LM, Conroy MB, Nathan DM. Psychological Predictors of Physical Activity in the Diabetes Prevention Program. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(5):698705.
  • 37
    Marcus BH, Selby VC, Niaura RS, Rossi JS. Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1992;63(1):606.
  • 38
    Nishida Y, Suzuki H, Wang DH, Kira S. Psychological determinants of physical activity in Japanese female employees. J Occup Health. 2003;45(1):1522.
  • 39
    ADA. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31 Suppl 1:1254.
  • 40
    Lindstrom J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Eriksson JG, Hemio K, et al. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet. 2006;368:16739.
  • 41
    DPPRG. Achieving Weight and Activity Goals Among Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Participants. Obesity. 2004;12(9):142634.
  • 42
    Williams R, Rapport F, Elwyn G, Lloyd B, Rance J, Belcher S. The prevention of type 2 diabetes: general practitioner and practice nurse opinions. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(504):5315.
  • 43
    DPPRG. Within-Trial Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(9):251823.
  • 44
    DPPRG. Costs Associated With the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):3647.
  • 45
    Johnson FR, Manjunath R, Mansfield CA, Clayton LJ, Hoerger TJ, Zhang P. High-Risk Individuals' Willingness to Pay for Diabetes Risk-Reduction Programs. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):13516.