• 1
    Kalucy M, Bower C, Stanley F, Burton P. Survival of infants with neural tube defects in Western Australia 1966–1990. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1994;8:33451.
  • 2
    Kalucy M, Bower C, Stanley F. School-aged children with spina bifida in Western Australia – parental perspectives on functional outcome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1996;38:32534.
  • 3
    Lumley J, Watson L, Watson M, Bower C. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects (Cochrane Review). In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, 2001. Chichester ( UK ): John Wiley; 2001.
  • 4
    National Health and Medical Research Council. Revised Statement on the Relationship Between Dietary Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects such as Spina Bifida. 115th session. Canberra ( AUST ): NHMRC; 1993.
  • 5
    Expert Panel on Folate Fortification, NHMRC. Folate Fortification [report on the Internet]. Canberra ( AUST ): AGPS; 1995 [cited 2009 Mar 12]. Available from:
  • 6
    Bower C, Blum L, O'Daly K, Higgins C, Loutsky F, Kosky C. Promotion of folate for the prevention of neural tube defects: knowledge and use of periconceptional folic acid supplements in Western Australia, 1992–1995. [published erratum: Aust NZ J Public Health 1998;1922:1972]. Aust NZ J Public Health. 1997;21:71621.
  • 7
    Chan A, Pickering J, Haan EA, Netting M, Burford A, Johnson A, et al. Folate before pregnancy: the impact on women and health professionals of a population-based health promotion campaign in South Australia. Med J Aust. 2001;174:6316.
  • 8
    Du Plessis L, Hunt RW, Fletcher AS, Riley MM, Halliday JL. What has happened with neural tube defects and womens’ understanding of folate in Victoria since 1998 Med J Aust. 2008;189(10):5704.
  • 9
    Owen TJ, Halliday JL, Stone CA. Neural tube defects in Victoria, Australia: potential contributing factors and public health implications. Aust NZ J Public Health. 2000;24:5849.
  • 10
    Bower C, Raymond M, Lumley J, Bury G. Trends in neural tube defects 1980–1989. Med J Aust. 1993;158:1524.
  • 11
    Chan A, Van Essen P, Scott H, Haan E A, Sage L, Scott J, Gill TK, Nguyen AT. Folate awareness and the prevalence of neural tube defects in South Australia, 1966–2007. Med J Aust. 2008;189(10):5669.
  • 12
    Halliday JL, Riley M Fortification of foods with folic acid. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:9701.
  • 13
    Bower C, Rudy E, Ryan A, Miller M. Trends in neural tube defects in Western Australia. Aust NZ J Public Health. 2002;26:1501.
  • 14
    Bower C, Eades S, Payne J, D'Antoine H, et al. Trends in neural tube defects in Western Australia in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2004;18:27780.
  • 15
    Food Liaison [FOODfine page on the Internet]. Canberra ( AUST ): Food Liaison Pty Ltd; 2007 [cited 2009 Jan 6]. Australia New Zealand Food Law on Disc® Australia and New Zealand. Version 51. Available from:
  • 16
    Bower C, De Klerk N, Hickling S, Ambrosini G, et al. Assessment of the potential effect of incremental increases in folic acid intake on neural tube defects in Australia and New Zealand. Aust NZ J Public Health. 2006;30(4):36974.
  • 17
    Abeywardana S, Sullivan EA. Neural Tube Defects in Australia. An Epidemiological Report. Sydney ( AUST ): National Perinatal Statistics Unit, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2008. Catalogue No.: PER 45.
  • 18
    Bower C, Ryan A, Rudy E. Ascertainment of pregnancies terminated because of birth defects: Effect on completeness of adding a new source of data. Teratology. 2001;63:235.
  • 19
    Riley M, Phyland S, Halliday J. Validation study of the Victorian Birth Defects Register. J Paediatr Child Health. 2004;40:5448.
  • 20
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of Population and Housing: Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) – Technical Paper 2001. Canberra ( AUST ): ABS; 2004. Catalogue No.: 2039.0.55.001.
  • 21
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Standard Geographical Classification. Canberra ( AUST ): ABS; 2006. Catalogue No.: 1216.0.
  • 22
    Leeds KL, Gourley M, Laws PJ, Zhang J, Al-Yaman F, Sullivan EA. Indigenous Mothers and Their Babies, Australia 2001–2004. Canberra ( AUST ): Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2007. Perinatal Statistics Series No.: 19.
  • 23
    Stockley L, Lund V. Use of folic acid supplements, particularly by low-income and young women: a series of systematic reviews to inform public health policy in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 2008;11:80721.