• 1
    World Health Organization. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination. Geneva ( CHE ) : WHO; 2007.
  • 2
    Laurberg P, Nohr SB, Pedersen KM, Hreidarsson AB, Andersen S, Bulow Pedersen I, et al. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid. 2000;10(11):95163.
  • 3
    Li M, Eastman CJ, Waite KV, Ma G, Zacharin MR, Topliss DJ, et al. Are Australian children iodine deficient? Results of the Australian National Iodine Nutrition Study. Med J Aust. 2006;184(4):1659.
  • 4
    McDonnell CM, Harris M, Zacharin MR. Iodine deficiency and goitre in schoolchildren in Melbourne, 2001. Med J Aust. 2003;178(4):15962.
  • 5
    Hamrosi MA, Wallace EM, Riley MD. Iodine status in pregnant women living in Melbourne differs by ethnic group. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14:2731.
  • 6
    Burgess JR, Seal JA, Stilwell GM, Reynolds PJ, Taylor ER, Parameswaran V. A case for universal salt iodisation to correct iodine deficiency in pregnancy: another salutary lesson from Tasmania. Med J Aust. 2007;186(11):5746.
  • 7
    Rego-Iraeta A, Perez-Fdez R, Cadarso-Suarez C, Tome M, Fdez-Marino A, Mato JA, et al. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain). Thyroid. 2007;17(2):1617.
  • 8
    Stilwell G, Reynolds PJ, Parameswaran V, Blizzard L, Greenaway TM, Burgess JR. The influence of gestational stage on urinary iodine excretion in pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5):173742.
  • 9
    Caldwell KL, Miller GA, Wang RY, Jain RB, Jones RL. Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Thyroid. 2008;18(11):120714.
  • 10
    Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. 2nd ed. New York ( NY ) : Oxford University Press; 2005.
  • 11
    Giles GG, English DR. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. IARC Sci Publ. 2002;156:6970.
  • 12
    Ohashi T, Yamaki M, Pandav CS, Karmarkar MG, Irie M. Simple microplate method for determination of urinary iodine. Clin Chem. 2000;46(4):52936.
  • 13
    National Health and Medical Research Council. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand: Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra ( AUST ) : Commonwealth of Australia; 2006.
  • 14
    Eastman CJ. The status of iodine nutrition in Australia. In: Delange F, Dunn JT, Glinoer D, editors. Iodine Deficiency in Europe – A Continuing Concern. New York ( NY ) : Plenum Press; 1993. p. 1339.
  • 15
    Thomson CD, Colls AJ, Conaglen JV, Macormack M, Stiles M, Mann J. Iodine status of New Zealand residents as assessed by urinary iodide excretion and thyroid hormones. Br J Nutr. 1997;78(6):90112.
  • 16
    Thomson CD. Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(5):66172.
  • 17
    Thomson BM, Vannoort RW, Haslemore RM. Dietary exposure and trends of exposure to nutrient elements iodine, iron, selenium and sodium from the 2003–4 New Zealand Total Diet Survey. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(3):61425.
  • 18
    Andersen S, Pedersen KM, Pedersen IB, Laurberg P. Variations in urinary iodine excretion and thyroid function. A 1-year study in healthy men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001;144(5):4615.
  • 19
    Brownie SR, Rolfe MI. Supplement utilisation patterns of older Australians: Results from a randomly selected national sample. Nutr Diet. 2005;62:8994.
  • 20
    Department of Health and Ageing. Food and Health Dialogue [Internet]. Canberra ( AUST ) : Commonwealth of Australia; 2009 [cited 2011 Aug 18] Available from:
  • 21
    National Health and Medical Research Council. Iodine Supplementation for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women [Internet]. Canberra ( AUST ) : Commonwealth of Australia; 2010 [cited 2011 Aug 18] Available from:
  • 22
    Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, Moran A, Lightwood JM, Pletcher MJ, et al. Projected effect of dietary salt reductions on future cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(7):5909.
  • 23
    Rahman A, Savige GS, Deacon NJ, Chesters JE, Panther BC. Urinary iodine deficiency in Gippsland pregnant women: the failure of bread fortification? Med J Aust. 2011;194(5):2403.