Graft versus host disease (GVHD) oceurs after a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) when the donors immune system rejects the recipienfs body, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Increased numbers of chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) patients are likely to be seen by dental professionals because of the advances made in transplantation. The oral cavity may be the primary or the only site of c-GVHD and may have persistent lesions after resolution has oceurred in other areas.
Approximately 80% of patients with extensive c-GVHD present some type of oral involvement, including xerostomia, oral pain and lesions. Dental and oral care can be challenging for these patients. This paper discusses the manifestations and treatment of oral c-GVHD and presents the case history of a 15-month-old girl who developed severe oral GVHD with an unusual periodontal presentation and early loss of primary teeth.