• 1
    Sanudo J, Vazquez R, Puerta J. Meaning and clinical interest of the anatomical variations in the 21st century. Eur J Anat 2003; 7 (Suppl 1): 13.
  • 2
    Satti SR, Cerniglia CA, Koenigsberg RA. Cervical vertebral artery variations: an anatomic study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 976980.
  • 3
    Caldemeyer KS, Carrico JB, Mathews VP. The radiology and embryology of anomalous arteries of the head and neck. AJR 1998; 170: 197203.
  • 4
    Luh GY, Dean BL, Tomsick TA, Wallace RC. The persistent fetal carotid vertebrobasilar anastomoses. AJR 1999; 172: 14271432.
  • 5
    Silvennoinen HM, Ikonen S, Soinne L, Railo M, Valanne L. CT angiographic analysis of carotid artery stenosis: comparison of manual assessment, semiautomatic vessel analysis, and digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 97103.
  • 6
    Lowe GM, Donaldson JS, Backer CL. Vascular rings: 10-year review of imaging. Radiographics 1991; 11: 637645.
  • 7
    Kussman BD, Geva T, McGowan FX. Cardiovascular causes of airway compression. Paediatr Anaesth 2004; 14: 6074.
  • 8
    Alsenaidi K, Gurofsky R, Karamlou T, Williams WG, McCrindle BW. Management and outcomes of double aortic arch in 81 patients. Pediatrics 2006; 118: e1336e1341.
  • 9
    Kimura-Hayama ET, Meléndez G, Mendizábal AL, Meave-González A, Zambrana GFB, Corona-Villalobos CP. Uncommon congenital and acquired aortic diseases: role of multidetector CT angiography. Radiographics 2010; 30: 7998.
  • 10
    Achiron R, Rotstein Z, Heggesh J et al. Anomalies of the fetal aortic arch: a novel sonographic approach to in-utero diagnosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002; 20: 553557.
  • 11
    Newton TH, Potts, DG. Radiology of the Skull and Brain – Angiography. The C.V. Mosby Company, Saint Louis, 1974.
  • 12
    Poellinger A, Lembcke A, Elgeti T et al. The cervical aortic arch: a rare vascular anomaly. Circulation 2008; 117: 27162717.
  • 13
    Bonnard A, Auber F, Fourcade L et al. Vascular ring abnormalities: a retrospective study of 62 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2003; 38 (4): 539543.
  • 14
    Park MK. Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners, 4th edn. Mosby, St. Louis, 2002; 141263.
  • 15
    Samanek M, Slavik Z, Zborilova B, Hrobonova V, Voriskova M, Skovranek J. Prevalence, treatment and outcome of heart disease in live-born children: a prospective analysis of 91 823 live-born children. Pediatr Cardiol 1989; 10: 205211.
  • 16
    Tanju S, Ustuner E, Erden I, Aytac SK. Right cervical aortic arch and pseudocoarctation of the aorta associated with aneurysms and steal phenomena: US, CTA and MRA findings. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007; 30: 146149.
  • 17
    Verin A-L, Creuze N, Musset D. Multidetector CT scan findings of a right aberrant retroesophageal vertebral artery with an anomalous origin from a cervical aortic arch. Chest 2010; 138 (2): 418422.
  • 18
    Lee EY, Siegel MJ, Hildebolt CF, Gutierrez FR, Bhalla S, Fallah JH. MDCT evaluation of thoracic aortic anomalies in pediatric patients and young adults: comparison of axial, multiplanar, and 3D images. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004; 182: 777784.
  • 19
    Weinberg PM. Aortic arch anomalies. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2006; 8 (4): 633643.
  • 20
    Stewart JR, Kincaid OW, Edwards JE. An Atlas of Vascular Rings and Related Malformations of the Aortic Arch System. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1964.
  • 21
    Edwards JE. Retroesophageal segment of the aortic arch, right ligamentum arteriosum causing congenital vascular ring about the trachea and esophagus. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 1948; 23: 108116.
  • 22
    Minami K, Sagoo KS, Matthies W, Meyer H, Körfer R. Left aortic arch, retro-esophageal aortic segment, right descending aorta and right patent ductus arteriosus – a very rare ‘vascular ring’ malformation. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1986; 34 (6): 395397.
  • 23
    Lippert H, Pabst R. Aortic arch. In: Lippert H (ed.). Arterial Variations in Man: Classification and Frequency. JF Bergmann, Munich, Germany, 1985; 310.
  • 24
    Maybody M, Uszynski M, Morton E, Vitek JJ. Absence of common carotid artery: a rare vascular anomaly. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003; 24: 711713.
  • 25
    Klinkhamer AC. Esophagraphy in Anomalies in the Aortic Arch System. The Williams and Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1969.
  • 26
    Gray H. The arteries of the head and neck. The common carotid artery. In: Johnston TB , Davies DV , Davies F (eds). Gray's Anatomy, Descriptive and Applied, 32 edn. Green and Co, London, 1998; 549.
  • 27
    Koskas F, Bahnini A, Walden R, Kieffer E. Stenotic coiling and kinking of the internal carotid artery. Ann Vasc Surg 1993; 7 (6): 530540.
  • 28
    Cairney J. Tortuosity of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery. J Anat 1924; 59 (1): 8796.
  • 29
    Paulsen F, Tillmann B, Christofides C, Richter W, Koebke J. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications. J Anat 2000; 197 (Pt 3): 373381.
  • 30
    Kubisa N, Zuber M, Méderb JF, Mas JL. CT scan of the skull base in internal carotid artery hypoplasia. Cerebrovasc Dis 1996; 6: 4044.
  • 31
    Smith BL, Munschauer CE, Diamond N, Rivera F. Ruptured internal carotid aneurysm resulting from neurofibromatosis: treatment with intraluminal stent graft. J Vasc Surg 2000; 32: 824828.
  • 32
    Bergman RA, Thompson SA, Afifi AK, Saadeh FA. Compendium of Human Anatomic Variations. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1988; 65.
  • 33
    Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Miyauchi R. Illustrated encyclopedia of human anatomic variation. Opus II. Cardiovascular system: arteries: head, neck, and thorax, 2012. [Cited 7 Jun 2012.] Available from URL:
  • 34
    Matula C, Trattnig S, Tschabitcher M, Day JD, Koos WT. The course of the Prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery: anatomy and Clinical Significance. Surg Neurol 1997; 48: 125131.
  • 35
    Layton KF, Miller GM, Kalina P. Aberrant origin of the right vertebral artery from the right common carotid artery: depiction of a rare vascular anomaly on magnetic resonance angiogiography. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2006; 17: 10651067.
  • 36
    Cavdar S, Arisan E. Variations in the extracranial origin of the human vertebral artery. Acta Anat (Basel) 1989; 135: 236238.
  • 37
    Kouchoukos NT, Masetti P. Aberrant subclavian artery and Kommerell aneurysm: surgical treatment with a standard approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 888920.
  • 38
    Eisenberg RA, Vines F, Taylor S. Bifid origin of the left vertebral artery. Radiology 1986; 159: 429430.
  • 39
    Al-Okaili R, Schwartz ED. Bilateral aortic origins of the vertebral arteries with right vertebral artery arising distal to left bubclavian artery: case report. Surg Neurol 2007; 67: 176.
  • 40
    Cloud GC, Markus HS. Diagnosis and management of vertebral artery stenosis. Q J Med 2003; 96: 2754.
  • 41
    Schöning M, Walter J, Scheel P. Estimation of cerebral blood flow through color duplex sonography of the carotid and vertebral arteries in healthy adults. Stroke 1994; 25: 1722.
  • 42
    Mordasinia P, Schmidt F, Schroth G, Remonda L. Asymmetrical bilateral duplication of the extracranial vertebral arteries: report of a unique case. Eur J Radiol 2008; 67: e9194.
  • 43
    Delcker A, Timmann D, Diener HC, Jüptner M. Die Doppler- und Duplexsonographie der Vertebralarterien. Fortschr Rontgenstr 1992; 157: 573578.
  • 44
    Albayram S, Gailloud P, Wasserman BA. Bilateral arch origin of the vertebral arteries. AJNR 2002; 23: 455458.