Effect of timing and duration of grapevine exposure to smoke on the composition and sensory properties of wine
Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009
© 2009 Western Australian Agriculture Authority
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 228–237, October 2009
How to Cite
KENNISON, K.R., WILKINSON, K.L., POLLNITZ, A.P., WILLIAMS, H.G. and GIBBERD, M.R. (2009), Effect of timing and duration of grapevine exposure to smoke on the composition and sensory properties of wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 15: 228–237. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00056.x
- Issue published online: 23 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009
- Manuscript received: 13 October 2008; Revised manuscript received: 21 January 2009; Accepted: 3 February 2009
- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry;
- smoke taint;
- Vitis vinifera;
- volatile phenols
Background and Aims: Grapevine smoke exposure has been reported to produce smoke aromas in wine, resulting in ‘smoke taint’. This study describes the application of smoke to field-grown grapevines between veraison and harvest to investigate the effect of timing and duration of smoke exposure on wine composition and sensory attributes.
Methods and Results: Smoke was applied to grapevines as either a single smoke exposure to different vines at veraison or at 3, 7, 10, 15, 18 or 21 days post-veraison or repeated smoke exposures to the same vines at veraison and then at 3, 7, 10, 15, 18 and 21 days post-veraison. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol showed elevated levels in all wines produced from fruit from smoked grapevines. Repeated smoke exposures had a cumulative effect on the concentration of these compounds. A trained sensory panel identified the aromas of ‘burnt rubber’, ‘smoked meat’, ‘leather’ and ‘disinfectant’ in all wines derived from smoke-exposed grapevines but not in control wines.
Conclusions: Smoke application to field-grown grapevines between veraison and harvest can influence the accumulation of volatile phenols and intensity of smoke aromas in resultant wines. A peak period of vine sensitivity to smoke at 7 days post-veraison is identified. Repeated smoke exposures have a cumulative effect.
Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report the deliberate and controlled smoke application to field-grown grapevines demonstrating the timing and duration of smoke exposure to significantly affect wine chemical and sensory characters.