Short Research Paper
The reliability of woody indexing for detection of grapevine virus-associated diseases in three different climatic conditions in Australia
Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012
© 2012 Commonwealth of Australia
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
Volume 19, Issue 1, pages 74–80, February 2013
How to Cite
Constable, F. E., Connellan, J., Nicholas, P. and Rodoni, B. C. (2013), The reliability of woody indexing for detection of grapevine virus-associated diseases in three different climatic conditions in Australia. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 19: 74–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2012.00204.x
- Issue published online: 24 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 14 MAY 2012
- Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation
- South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI)
- biological indexing;
- reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);
Background and Aims
In Australia, grapevine varieties are tested for viruses by woody indexing (WI) in combination with other procedures during post-entry quarantine and prior to their introduction into the nucleus collections of high health certification programs. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and accuracy of WI for virus detection in different climatic conditions.
Methods and Results
Replicated experiments were conducted in a hot climate, a cool climate and a screenhouse. Indicator plants were inoculated with Grapevine virus A, Grapevine virus B, Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLRaV) 1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-9 and Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus. Indicators were observed during three years for characteristic symptom development and tested for viruses by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Virus transmission was not always successful. Symptoms were not always observed in each year at each trial site even if viruses could be detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
WI reliability was affected by the success of bud-take, transmission of the virus from the candidate bud to the indicator and different climatic conditions. It is recommended that WI be carried out for a minimum of three years in the field.
Significance of the Study
Understanding the effect of different climatic conditions on WI will improve the reliability of grapevine virus detection in Australia.