Here, we report the isolation and characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellites in Limodorum abortivum. Allele variability has been characterized in three populations from Southern Italy and France. The number of alleles ranged from one to six per locus with an average of 3.8 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.492 to 0.806, respectively, with striking differences among populations. These microsatellites should be valuable tools for studying fine-scale genetic structure of scattered Limodorum abortivum populations, patterns of relationship with closely related taxa and the evolutionary ecology of its mycorrhizal interactions.