In this study, we developed 12 microsatellite loci for Populus euphratica and checked their variability in 27 individuals. The number of alleles for 12 loci ranged from five to nine, the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and from 0.53 to 0.67. Frequencies of null alleles of all loci are not significantly greater than zero. None of the loci showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. No significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of studied loci. These markers are useful in studies of population genetic structure of P. euphratica.