Dalbergia nigra is an endangered tree restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in 47 trees from two populations. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 12 alleles. The levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.304 to 0.740 and from 0.278 to 0.872, respectively. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg were detected for only three loci in each population. No pair of loci exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium. These microsatellites provide an efficient tool to investigate genetic structure in forest remnants with the purpose of conservation of this species.