Twenty microsatellite loci were identified from genomic DNA enrichment and expressed sequence tags of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Eight loci were found to be polymorphic in a Northeast Ohio H. bacteriophora population. Levels of polymorphism were evaluated in 31–56 individuals and the number of alleles ranged from two to three. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.536 and from 0.223 to 0.616, respectively. All eight loci showed heterozygote deficiencies, but three conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium at the subpopulation level. This is the first set of microsatellite markers in entomopathogenic nematodes.