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Identification of the endangered small red brocket deer (Mazama bororo) using noninvasive genetic techniques (Mammalia; Cervidae)

Authors

  • SUSANA GONZÁLEZ,

    1. Unidad de Genética de la Conservación, Departamento de Genética, IIBCE-Facultad de Ciencias/UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay
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  • JESÚS E. MALDONADO,

    1. Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, NZP/NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, 3001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20008, USA
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  • JORGE ORTEGA,

    1. Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, NZP/NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, 3001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20008, USA
    2. Laboratorio de Ictiología y Limnología, Posgrado en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Col. Santo Tomás, 11340 México
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  • ANGELA CRISTINA TALARICO,

    1. Núcleo de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cervídeos (NUPECCE), Departamento de Zootecnia, FCAV/UNESP, São Paulo State University, Via de Acesso Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, CEP 14884-900, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil
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  • LETICIA BIDEGARAY-BATISTA,

    1. Unidad de Genética de la Conservación, Departamento de Genética, IIBCE-Facultad de Ciencias/UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay
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    • **

      Present address: Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

  • JOSÉ EDUARDO GARCIA,

    1. Centro Acadêmico de Vitória. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55608-680 Vitória de Santo Antão — PE, Brazil
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  • JOSÉ MAURÍCIO BARBANTI DUARTE

    1. Núcleo de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cervídeos (NUPECCE), Departamento de Zootecnia, FCAV/UNESP, São Paulo State University, Via de Acesso Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, CEP 14884-900, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil
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Susana González, de Genética de la Conservación, Departamento de Genética, IIBCE-Facultad de Ciencias/UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay, E-mail: sugonza@iibce.edu.uy

Abstract

The small red brocket deer Mazama bororo is one of the most endangered deer in the Neotropics. The great morphological similarities with three other sympatric brocket deer species, coupled with the fact that they inhabit densely forested habitats complicate detection and prevent the use of traditional methodologies for accurate identification of species. The ability to determine the presence of this endangered species in an area is crucial for estimating its distribution range, and is critical for establishing conservation management strategies. Here we describe a fast and reliable noninvasive genetic method for species identification of Mazama species from faeces. We designed a primer set that amplifies a short 224-bp fragment of the cytochrome b and demonstrate its effectiveness in successful amplification of DNA isolated from both tissue and faecal samples. This fragment contains a BSTNI/ECORII digestion site that is unique to the endangered M. bororo. The digested polymerase chain reaction products yielded a 160-bp fragment that is clearly visible in a 2% agarose gel. Two other diagnostic sites were identified to differentiate the other three sympatric species, SspI (M. gouazoubira) and AflIII (M. americana, and M. nana).

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