We developed and characterized 31 microsatellite markers from expressed sequence tags of Pinctada martensii (Dunker). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 18 as determined in 44 individuals from a wild population. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4121 to 0.9436, while the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.4054 to 0.7273. Most of the loci are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These markers should be useful for population genetics studies, parentage and genome mapping in this species.