We isolated nine polymorphic microsatellite markers from the Chinese rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) using an enriched library method. We assessed genetic polymorphism at these loci in 42 individuals from a single population. We recorded high genetic diversity with four to 17 alleles per locus, and estimated expected and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.492 to 0.910 and from 0.462 to 0.881, respectively. No locus departed from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium following Bonferroni correction, and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Most loci successfully cross-amplified congeneric species. These loci will be used to characterize phylogeographical history of Rhinolophus sinicus in China.