As an endangered endemic herb, Dendrobium fimbriatum, is under threat from numerous impacts. In order to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of this endangered species, we provide details of 10 microsatellite loci (out of 15 primer pairs designed) which showed polymorphic for D. fimbriatum. These loci were used to screen 25 individuals from across the species’ geographical range. Ten loci were polymorphic with 2 to 19 alleles; three loci were monomorphic, while the rest produced no amplification fragments. These loci will be used to investigate population genetic structure, genetic diversity, conservation, and individual authentication in the endangered D. fimbriatum.