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Appendix S1 List of genera, number of species and source of data from which we calculated intra- and interspecific distance (K2P) (interspecific distance only for congeneric species). We included only genera with multiple species and species with multiple samples.

Appendix S2 Summary of the mean gap in genetic distance, incidence of polyploidy and hybridization, and dominant life history (woody; perennial; herbaceous) for 12 genera of land plants. We used the data to determine the relation between polyploidy, hybridization or life history and the degree of genetic discontinuity. We estimated the genetic distance gap from data in Fazekas etal. (2008) as the difference between the minimum interspecific genetic distance and maximum intraspecific genetic distance for each species within a genus, averaged across congeners. N refers to the number of species per genus; all species were represented by at least three barcode sequences. We determined the incidence of polyploidy by estimating the base chromosome number per genus and the ploidy (number of copies of the base chromosome set) in each species using the Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN; Missouri Botanical Garden). We considered a genus variable in ploidy if variation existed either within or between species in our sample. Incidence of hybridization reflected the evidence of hybridization in the published literature on the species in our sample. We scored hybridization as present if any species within a genus was of confirmed hybrid origin or was known to hybridize with other congeners.

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