• distance matrices;
  • individual-based model;
  • landscape resistance;
  • population genetics


Spatially explicit simulation of gene flow in complex landscapes is essential to explain observed population responses and provide a foundation for landscape genetics. To address this need, we wrote a spatially explicit, individual-based population genetics model (cdpop). The model implements individual-based population modelling with Mendelian inheritance and k-allele mutation on a resistant landscape. The model simulates changes in population and genotypes through time as functions of individual based movement, reproduction, mortality and dispersal on a continuous cost surface. This model will be a valuable tool for the study of landscape genetics by increasing our understanding about the effects of life history, vagility and differential models of landscape resistance on the genetic structure of populations in complex landscapes.