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A noninvasive, direct real-time PCR method for sex determination in multiple avian species

Authors

  • JESSICA L. BRUBAKER,

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
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    • These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

  • NATALIE K. KAROUNA-RENIER,

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
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    • These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

  • YU CHEN,

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    2. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0321, USA
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  • KATHRYN JENKO,

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
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  • DANIEL T. SPRAGUE,

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
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  • PAULA F. P. HENRY

    1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC East Bldg 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
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Natalie K. Karouna-Renier, Fax: 1 301 497 5724; E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov

Abstract

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to determine the sex of birds are well established and have seen few modifications since they were first introduced in the 1990s. Although these methods allowed for sex determination in species that were previously difficult to analyse, they were not conducive to high-throughput analysis because of the laboriousness of DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis. We developed a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method for analysis of sex in birds, which uses noninvasive sample collection and avoids DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis.

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