• allelic dropout;
  • amplification success;
  • Arctic;
  • buccal swab;
  • feather;
  • genotyping errors;
  • Ivory gull;
  • microsatellites;
  • multiplex PCR;
  • Pagophila eburnea


We report 22 new polymorphic microsatellites for the Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), and we describe how they can be efficiently co-amplified using multiplexed polymerase chain reactions. In addition, we report DNA concentration, amplification success, rates of genotyping errors and the number of genotyping repetitions required to obtain reliable data with three types of noninvasive or nondestructive samples: shed feathers collected in colonies, feathers plucked from living individuals and buccal swabs. In two populations from Greenland (n = 21) and Russia (Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, n = 21), the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 17, and expected heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.18 to 0.92. Twenty of the markers conformed to Hardy–Weinberg and linkage equilibrium expectations. Most markers were easily amplified and highly reliable when analysed from buccal swabs and plucked feathers, showing that buccal swabbing is a very efficient approach allowing good quality DNA retrieval. Although DNA amplification success using single shed feathers was generally high, the genotypes obtained from this type of samples were prone to error and thus need to be amplified several times. The set of microsatellite markers described here together with multiplex amplification conditions and genotyping error rates will be useful for population genetic studies of the Ivory gull.