Rise of the machines – recommendations for ecologists when using next generation sequencing for microsatellite development

Authors

  • MICHAEL G. GARDNER,

    1. School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
    2. Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
    3. Department for Environment and Heritage, State Herbarium, Science Resource Centre, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
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  • ALISON J. FITCH,

    1. School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
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  • TERRY BERTOZZI,

    1. Evolutionary Biology Unit, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
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  • ANDREW J. LOWE

    1. Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
    2. Department for Environment and Heritage, State Herbarium, Science Resource Centre, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
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Michael G. Gardner, Fax: +61 8 8201 3015; E-mail: michael.gardner@flinders.edu.au

Abstract

Next generation sequencing is revolutionizing molecular ecology by simplifying the development of molecular genetic markers, including microsatellites. Here, we summarize the results of the large-scale development of microsatellites for 54 nonmodel species using next generation sequencing and show that there are clear differences amongst plants, invertebrates and vertebrates for the number and proportion of motif types recovered that are able to be utilized as markers. We highlight that the heterogeneity within each group is very large. Despite this variation, we provide an indication of what number of sequences and consequent proportion of a 454 run are required for the development of 40 designable, unique microsatellite loci for a typical molecular ecological study. Finally, to address the challenges of choosing loci from the vast array of microsatellite loci typically available from partial genome runs (average for this study, 2341 loci), we provide a microsatellite development flowchart as a procedural guide for application once the results of a partial genome run are obtained.

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