Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

Authors

  • MEI-JIAO ZHOU,

    1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
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  • JIN-HUA XIAO,

    1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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  • SHENG-NAN BIAN,

    1. College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China
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  • YAN-WEI LI,

    1. College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China
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  • LI-MING NIU,

    1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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  • HAO-YUAN HU,

    1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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  • WEN-SHAN WU,

    1. College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350108, China
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  • ROBERT W. MURPHY,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
    2. Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen’s Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2C6
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  • DA-WEI HUANG

    1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China
    3. College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) Volume 13, Issue 2, 344–346, Article first published online: 14 February 2013

Da-Wei Huang, Fax: 86-10-64807235; E-mail: xiaojh@ioz.ac.cn

Abstract

Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps’ enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching.

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