Utility of the DNA barcoding gene fragment for parasitic wasp phylogeny (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea): data release and new measure of taxonomic congruence

Authors

  • DONALD L. J. QUICKE,

    1. Division of Biology, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ, UK
    2. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5DB, UK
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  • M. ALEX SMITH,

    1. Department of Integrative Biology, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
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  • DANIEL H. JANZEN,

    1. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, USA
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  • WINNIE HALLWACHS,

    1. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, USA
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  • JOSE FERNANDEZ-TRIANA,

    1. Department of Integrative Biology, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    2. Canadian National Collection of Insects, 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6
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  • NINA M. LAURENNE,

    1. Aalto University School of Science, Department of Media Technology, PO Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland and University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Finland
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  • ALEJANDRO ZALDÍVAR-RIVERÓN,

    1. Colección Nacional de Insectos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, A.P. 70-153, C.P. 04510, México D. F.
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  • MARK R. SHAW,

    1. Honorary Research Associate, National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1JF, UK
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  • GAVIN R. BROAD,

    1. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5DB, UK
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  • SERAINA KLOPFSTEIN,

    1. Natural History Museum, Department of Invertebrates, Bernastrasse 15, CH-3005 Bern, Switzerland, and Zoological Institute, Division of Community Ecology, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
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  • SCOTT R. SHAW,

    1. University of Wyoming Insect Museum, Department of Renewable Resources (3354), University of Wyoming, 1000 East University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
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  • JAN HRCEK,

    1. Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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  • PAUL D. N. HEBERT,

    1. Department of Integrative Biology, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
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  • SCOTT E. MILLER,

    1. Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 105 Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA
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  • JOSEPHINE J. RODRIGUEZ,

    1. National Center for Ecological, Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), University of California, Santa Barbara, 735 State St., Suite 300 Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA
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  • JAMES B. WHITFIELD,

    1. Department of Entomology, 320 Morrill Hall, University of Illinois, 505 S. Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • MICHAEL J. SHARKEY,

    1. Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA
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  • BARBARA J. SHARANOWSKI,

    1. North Carolina State University, Department of Entomology, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
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    • Present address for Barbara J. Sharanowski: University of Manitoba, Department of Entomology, 214 Animal Science Bldg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2.

  • REIJO JUSSILA,

    1. Krouvintie 92, 21330 Paattinen, Finland
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  • IAN D. GAULD[DECEASED],

    1. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5DB, UK
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  • DOUGLAS CHESTERS,

    1. Division of Biology, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ, UK
    2. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5DB, UK
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  • ALFRIED P. VOGLER

    1. Division of Biology, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ, UK
    2. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5DB, UK
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Donald L. J. Quicke, Fax: +44(0)2075942339; E-mail: d.quicke@imperial.ac.uk

Abstract

The enormous cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence database being assembled from the various DNA barcoding projects as well as from independent phylogenetic studies constitutes an almost unprecedented amount of data for molecular systematics, in addition to its role in species identification and discovery. As part of a study of the potential of this gene fragment to improve the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions, and in particular, exploring the effects of dense taxon sampling, we have assembled a data set for the hyperdiverse, cosmopolitan parasitic wasp superfamily Ichneumonoidea, including the release of 1793 unpublished sequences. Of approximately 84 currently recognized Ichneumonoidea subfamilies, 2500 genera and 41 000 described species, barcoding 5′-COI data were assembled for 4168 putative species-level terminals (many undescribed), representing 671 genera and all but ten of the currently recognized subfamilies. After the removal of identical and near-identical sequences, the 4174 initial sequences were reduced to 3278. We show that when subjected to phylogenetic analysis using both maximum likelihood and parsimony, there is a broad correlation between taxonomic congruence and number of included sequences. We additionally present a new measure of taxonomic congruence based upon the Simpson diversity index, the Simpson dominance index, which gives greater weight to morphologically recognized taxonomic groups (subfamilies) recovered with most representatives in one or a few contiguous groups or subclusters.

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