In this work, we tested 100 potential new microsatellites (SSRs) equally derived from expressed sequence tag (EST) and enriched genomic-DNA libraries from Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup), a valuable cultured flatfish species. A final set of 69 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after a population analysis, 37 of which corresponded to the first EST library constructed for Senegalese sole (EST-SSR). Although differences were not significant, EST sequences provided a higher proportion of quality markers (74%) than anonymous ones (64%). Most of the rejected anonymous SSRs (17 loci) were discarded because they did not generate PCR products; only one was monomorphic. On the contrary, all EST-SSRs gave PCR products, although monomorphism was more frequent (26%). Altogether, the number of alleles per locus was fairly similar in both SSR types, ranging from 2 to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.105 to 1 and from 0.108 to 0.937, respectively. The main difference between the two sets was the percentage of annotated loci, being higher in EST-SSRs, as expected. Within the EST-SSRs, 46% of them showed flanking regions that significantly matched with EST sequences from other three flatfish species; however, the microsatellite itself was present only on half of these cases. These two new SSR sets constitute a suitable tool for fingerprinting, gene flow, genetic diversity, genome mapping studies and molecular-assisted breeding in this species.