Partial and some few cases of complete spontaneous regression have been observed in cutaneous melanoma patients but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) is a suitable animal model to study the phenomenon of spontaneous regression because MeLiM pigs exhibit naturally occurring melanomas which regress completely 6 months after birth. In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify molecular determinants of melanoma regression within swine melanoma tissues and melanoma cell cultures. Several markers involved in cell-adhesion, -communication, -motility, signal transduction, negative regulation of cell proliferation, transport and immune response were identified that correlated with melanoma regression whereas the main genes involved in melanin synthesis showed a strong downregulation. For the most differentially expressed genes, we validated the results obtained by SSH with qRT-PCR and with immunohistochemistry for some of them (CD9, MITF, RARRES1). Most notable, for the first time in melanoma, we identified the retinoic acid responder 1 gene (RARRES1) as a main actor of the regression process in melanoma. This first gene expression study in swine melanoma regression, may contribute to the finding of new therapeutic targets for human melanoma treatment.