SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aagaard, L., and Rossi, J.J. (2007). RNAi therapeutics: principles, prospects and challenges. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59, 7586.
  • Aigner, A. (2007). Applications of RNA interference: current state and prospects for siRNA-based strategies in vivo. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 76, 921.
  • Akhtar, S., and Benter, I.F. (2007). Nonviral delivery of synthetic siRNAs in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 117, 36233632.
  • Allen, B.J., Rizvi, S.M., and Tian, Z. (2001). Preclinical targeted alpha therapy for subcutaneous melanoma. Melanoma Res. 11, 175182.
  • Altomare, D.A., and Testa, J.R. (2005). Perturbations of the AKT signaling pathway in human cancer. Oncogene 24, 74557464.
  • Balch, C.M. (1998). Cutaneous Melanoma, 3rd edn (St. Louis, Mo: Quality Medical Pub).
  • Di Bartolomeo, S., and Spinedi, A. (2001). Differential chemosensitizing effect of two glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors in hepatoma cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 288, 269274.
  • Batist, G., Ramakrishnan, G., Rao, C.S. et al. (2001). Reduced cardiotoxicity and preserved antitumor efficacy of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide compared with conventional doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in a randomized, multicenter trial of metastatic breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 19, 14441454.
  • Behlke, M.A. (2006). Progress towards in vivo use of siRNAs. Mol. Ther. 13, 644670.
  • Berd, D., Herlyn, M., Koprowski, H., and Mastrangelo, M.J. (1989). Flow cytometric determination of the frequency and heterogeneity of expression of human melanoma-associated antigens. Cancer Res. 49, 68406844.
  • Besic, E. (2007). Physical mechanisms and methods employed in drug delivery to tumors. Acta Pharm. 57, 249268.
  • Bianco, A., Kostarelos, K., Partidos, C.D., and Prato, M. (2005). Biomedical applications of functionalised carbon nanotubes. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 5, 571577.
  • Brose, M.S., Volpe, P., Feldman, M. et al. (2002). BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma. Cancer Res. 62, 69977000.
  • Brummelkamp, T.R., Bernards, R., and Agami, R. (2002). A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 296, 550553.
  • Byrne, C.M., Thompson, J.F., Johnston, H., Hersey, P., Quinn, M.J., Michael Hughes, T., and McCarthy, W.H. (2005). Treatment of metastatic melanoma using electroporation therapy with bleomycin (electrochemotherapy). Melanoma Res. 15, 4551.
  • Chang, D.K., Lin, C.T., Wu, C.H., and Wu, H.C. (2009). A novel peptide enhances therapeutic efficacy of liposomal anti-cancer drugs in mice models of human lung cancer. PLoS ONE 4, e4171.
  • Chen, A.A., Derfus, A.M., Khetani, S.R., and Bhatia, S.N. (2005). Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 33, e190.
  • Cheung, M., Sharma, A., Madhunapantula, S.V., and Robertson, G.P. (2008). Akt3 and mutant (V600E) B-Raf cooperate to promote early melanoma development. Cancer Res. 68, 34293439.
  • Chien, P.Y., Wang, J., Carbonaro, D., Lei, S., Miller, B., Sheikh, S., Ali, S.M., Ahmad, M.U., and Ahmad, I. (2005). Novel cationic cardiolipin analogue-based liposome for efficient DNA and small interfering RNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Gene Ther. 12, 321328.
  • Cuenca, A.G., Jiang, H., Hochwald, S.N., Delano, M., Cance, W.G., and Grobmyer, S.R. (2006). Emerging implications of nanotechnology on cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Cancer 107, 459466.
  • Dai, Y., Yu, C., Singh, V., Tang, L., Wang, Z., McInistry, R., Dent, P., and Grant, S. (2001). Pharmacological inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase/MAPK cascade interact synergistically with UCN-01 to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 61, 51065115.
  • Daniel, C.W., and Smith, G.H. (1999). The mammary gland: a model for development. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4, 38.
  • Danielson, K.G., Oborn, C.J., Durban, E.M., Butel, J.S., and Medina, D. (1984). Epithelial mouse mammary cell line exhibiting normal morphogenesis in vivo and functional differentiation in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 81, 37563760.
  • Davies, H., Bignell, G.R., Cox, C. et al. (2002). Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature 417, 949954.
  • DeJong, W.H., and Borm, P.J. (2008). Drug delivery and nanoparticles: applications and hazards. Int J Nanomedicine 3, 133.
  • Del Vecchio, S., Reynolds, J.C., Carrasquillo, J.A., Blasberg, R.G., Neumann, R.D., Lotze, M.T., Bryant, G.J., Farkas, R.J., and Larson, S.M. (1989). Local distribution and concentration of intravenously injected 131I-9.2.27 monoclonal antibody in human malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 49, 27832789.
  • Elbashir, S.M., Harborth, J., Lendeckel, W., Yalcin, A., Weber, K., and Tuschl, T. (2001). Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. Nature 411, 494498.
  • Elder, D. (1999). Tumor progression, early diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma. Acta Oncol. 38, 535547.
  • Elder, D.E., Clark, W.H. Jr, Elenitsas, R., Guerry, D.t., and Halpern, A.C. (1993). The early and intermediate precursor lesions of tumor progression in the melanocytic system: common acquired nevi and atypical (dysplastic) nevi. Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 10, 1835.
  • Ellerhorst, J.A., Bedikian, A., Ring, S., Buzaid, A.C., Eton, O., and Legha, S.S. (1999). Phase II trial of doxil for patients with metastatic melanoma refractory to frontline therapy. Oncol. Rep. 6, 10971099.
  • Elwood, J.M., and Jopson, J. (1997). Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int. J. Cancer 73, 198203.
  • Farhood, H., Serbina, N., and Huang, L. (1995). The role of dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine in cationic liposome mediated gene transfer. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1235, 289295.
  • Foster, L.J., Li, D., Randhawa, V.K., and Klip, A. (2001). Insulin accelerates inter-endosomal GLUT4 traffic via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4421244221.
  • Franke, T.F., Yang, S.I., Chan, T.O., Datta, K., Kazlauskas, A., Morrison, D.K., Kaplan, D.R., and Tsichlis, P.N. (1995). The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is a target of the PDGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Cell 81, 727736.
  • Gabizon, A., Catane, R., Uziely, B., Kaufman, B., Safra, T., Cohen, R., Martin, F., Huang, A., and Barenholz, Y. (1994). Prolonged circulation time and enhanced accumulation in malignant exudates of doxorubicin encapsulated in polyethylene-glycol coated liposomes. Cancer Res. 54, 987992.
  • Gandini, S., Sera, F., Cattaruzza, M.S., Pasquini, P., Zanetti, R., Masini, C., Boyle, P., and Melchi, C.F. (2005). Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur. J. Cancer 41, 20402059.
  • Garbe, C., and Eigentler, T.K. (2007). Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: state of the art 2006. Melanoma Res. 17, 117127.
  • Gokhale, P.C., Zhang, C., Newsome, J.T., Pei, J., Ahmad, I., Rahman, A., Dritschilo, A., and Kasid, U.N. (2002). Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of ends-modified raf antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide encapsulated in a novel cationic liposome. Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 36113621.
  • Grandage, V.L., Gale, R.E., Linch, D.C., and Khwaja, A. (2005). PI3-kinase/Akt is constitutively active in primary acute myeloid leukaemia cells and regulates survival and chemoresistance via NF-kappaB, Mapkinase and p53 pathways. Leukemia 19, 586594.
  • Gray, M.J., Van Buren, G., Dallas, N.A. et al. (2008). Therapeutic targeting of neuropilin-2 on colorectal carcinoma cells implanted in the murine liver. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 100, 109120.
  • Guerry, D., Synnestvedt, M., Elder, D.E., and Schultz, D. (1993). Lessons from tumor progression: the invasive radial growth phase of melanoma is common, incapable of metastasis, and indolent. J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 342S345S.
  • Gullick, W.J. (1991). Prevalence of aberrant expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human cancers. Br. Med. Bull. 47, 8798.
  • Halder, J., Kamat, A.A., Landon, C.N. Jr et al. (2006). Focal adhesion kinase targeting using in vivo short interfering RNA delivery in neutral liposomes for ovarian carcinoma therapy. Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 49164924.
  • Harding, C., Heuser, J., and Stahl, P. (1983). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes. J. Cell Biol. 97, 329339.
  • Hashida, M., Kawakami, S., and Yamashita, F. (2005). Lipid carrier systems for targeted drug and gene delivery. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 53, 871880.
  • Hilgenbrink, A.R., and Low, P.S. (2005). Folate receptor-mediated drug targeting: from therapeutics to diagnostics. J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 21352146.
  • Hingorani, S.R., Jacobetz, M.A., Robertson, G.P., Herlyn, M., and Tuveson, D.A. (2003). Suppression of BRAF(V599E) in human melanoma abrogates transformation. Cancer Res. 63, 51985202.
  • Hirsch, L.R., Stafford, R.J., Bankson, J.A., Sershen, S.R., Rivera, B., Price, R.E., Hazle, J.D., Halas, N.J., and West, J.L. (2003). Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 100, 1354913554.
  • Hosgood, G., and Hoskins, J.D. (1998). Small Animal Paediatric Medicine and Surgery (Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann).
  • Ito, A., Fujioka, M., Yoshida, T., Wakamatsu, K., Ito, S., Yamashita, T., Jimbow, K., and Honda, H. (2007). 4-S-Cysteaminylphenol-loaded magnetite cationic liposomes for combination therapy of hyperthermia with chemotherapy against malignant melanoma. Cancer Sci. 98, 424430.
  • Kane, R.C., Farrell, A.T., Saber, H. et al. (2006). Sorafenib for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 72717278.
  • Kaushik, S., Hord, A.H., Denson, D.D., McAllister, D.V., Smitra, S., Allen, M.G., and Prausnitz, M.R. (2001). Lack of pain associated with microfabricated microneedles. Anesth. Analg. 92, 502504.
  • Kawakami, S., and Hashida, M. (2007). Targeted delivery systems of small interfering RNA by systemic administration. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 22, 142151.
  • Kawamori, T., Osta, W., Johnson, K.R. et al. (2006). Sphingosine kinase 1 is up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis. FASEB J. 20, 386388.
  • Keer, H.N., Kozlowski, J.M., Tsai, Y.C., Lee, C., McEwan, R.N., and Grayhack, J.T. (1990). Elevated transferrin receptor content in human prostate cancer cell lines assessed in vitro and in vivo. J. Urol. 143, 381385.
  • Kim, D.H., and Rossi, J.J. (2007). Strategies for silencing human disease using RNA interference. Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 173184.
  • Landon, C.N. Jr, Chavez-Reyes, A., Bucana, C., Schmandt, R., Deavers, M.T., Lopez-Berestein, G., and Sood, A.K. (2005). Therapeutic EphA2 gene targeting in vivo using neutral liposomal small interfering RNA delivery. Cancer Res. 65, 69106918.
  • Lee, T.Y., Lin, C.T., Kuo, S.Y., Chang, D.K., and Wu, H.C. (2007). Peptide-mediated targeting to tumor blood vessels of lung cancer for drug delivery. Cancer Res. 67, 1095810965.
  • Liu, Y., Miyoshi, H., and Nakamura, M. (2007). Nanomedicine for drug delivery and imaging: a promising avenue for cancer therapy and diagnosis using targeted functional nanoparticles. Int. J. Cancer 120, 25272537.
  • Loo, C., Lin, A., Hirsch, L., Lee, M.H., Barton, J., Halas, N., West, J., and Drezek, R. (2004). Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer. Technol. Cancer Res. Treat 3, 3340.
  • Lopez-Bergami, P., Fitchman, B., and Ronai, Z. (2008). Understanding signaling cascades in melanoma. Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 289306.
  • Lv, H., Zhang, S., Wang, B., Cui, S., and Yan, J. (2006). Toxicity of cationic lipids and cationic polymers in gene delivery. J. Control Release 114, 100109.
  • Madhankumar, A.B., Slagle-Webb, B., Mintz, A., Sheehan, J.M., and Connor, J.R. (2006). Interleukin-13 receptor-targeted nanovesicles are a potential therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Mol. cancer ther. 5, 31623169.
  • Madhunapantula, S.V., and Robertson, G.P. (2008). Is B-Raf a good therapeutic target for melanoma and other malignancies? Cancer Res. 68, 58.
  • Mathias, S., Pena, L.A., and Kolesnick, R.N. (1998). Signal transduction of stress via ceramide. Biochem. J. 335(Pt 3), 465480.
  • Mattes, M.J., Major, P.P., Goldenberg, D.M., Dion, A.S., Hutter, R.V., and Klein, K.M. (1990). Patterns of antigen distribution in human carcinomas. Cancer Res. 50, 880s884s.
  • McDonald, D.M., and Baluk, P. (2002). Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer. Cancer Res. 62, 53815385.
  • Mehier-Humbert, S., Bettinger, T., Yan, F., and Guy, R.H. (2005). Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery: kinetics of plasmid internalization and gene expression. J. Control Release 104, 203211.
  • Merritt, W.M., Lin, Y.G., Spannuth, W.A. et al. (2008). Effect of interleukin-8 gene silencing with liposome-encapsulated small interfering RNA on ovarian cancer cell growth. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 100, 359372.
  • Mezei, M., and Gulasekharam, V. (1980). Liposomes--a selective drug delivery system for the topical route of administration. Lotion dosage form. Life Sci. 26, 14731477.
  • Miller, C.J., Cheung, M., Sharma, A., Clarke, L., Helm, K., Mauger, D., and Robertson, G.P. (2004). Method of mutation analysis may contribute to discrepancies in reports of (V599E)BRAF mutation frequencies in melanocytic neoplasms. J. Invest. Dermatol. 123, 990992.
  • Mir, L.M., Glass, L.F., Sersa, G. et al. (1998). Effective treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous malignant tumours by electrochemotherapy. Br. J. Cancer 77, 23362342.
  • Mitragotri, S., and Kost, J. (2004). Low-frequency sonophoresis: a review. Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 56, 589601.
  • Mockey, M., Bourseau, E., Chandrashekhar, V., Chaudhuri, A., Lafosse, S., Le Cam, E., Quesniaux, V.F., Ryffel, B., Pichon, C., and Midoux, P. (2007). mRNA-based cancer vaccine: prevention of B16 melanoma progression and metastasis by systemic injection of MART1 mRNA histidylated lipopolyplexes. Cancer Gene Ther. 14, 802814.
  • Na, K., Lee, K.H., Lee, D.H., and Bae, Y.H. (2006). Biodegradable thermo-sensitive nanoparticles from poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) alternating multi-block copolymer for potential anti-cancer drug carrier. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 27, 115.
  • Nie, S., Xing, Y., Kim, G.J., and Simons, J.W. (2007). Nanotechnology applications in cancer. Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 9, 257288.
  • Nogawa, M., Yuasa, T., Kimura, S. et al. (2005). Intravesical administration of small interfering RNA targeting PLK-1 successfully prevents the growth of bladder cancer. J. Clin. Invest. 115, 978985.
  • Okumura, K., Nakase, M., Inui, M., Nakamura, S., Watanabe, Y., and Tagawa, T. (2008). Bax mRNA therapy using cationic liposomes for human malignant melanoma. J.Gene Med. 10, 910917.
  • Paddison, P.J., Caudy, A.A., Bernstein, E., Hannon, G.J., and Conklin, D.S. (2002). Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) induce sequence-specific silencing in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 16, 948958.
  • Pal, A., Ahmad, A., Khan, S., Sakabe, I., Zhang, C., Kasid, U.N., and Ahmad, I. (2005). Systemic delivery of RafsiRNA using cationic cardiolipin liposomes silences Raf-1 expression and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft model of human prostate cancer. Int. J. Oncol. 26, 10871091.
  • Panka, D.J., Atkins, M.B., and Mier, J.W. (2006). Targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 2371s2375s.
  • Pantarotto, D., Briand, J.P., Prato, M., and Bianco, A. (2004). Translocation of bioactive peptides across cell membranes by carbon nanotubes. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 1, 1617.
  • Pastorino, F., Brignole, C., Marimpietri, D., Pagnan, G., Morando, A., Ribatti, D., Semple, S.C., Gambini, C., Allen, T.M., and Ponzoni, M. (2003). Targeted liposomal c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth and metastases in human melanoma models. Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 45954605.
  • Peer, D., Park, E.J., Morishita, Y., Carman, C.V., and Shimaoka, M. (2008). Systemic leukocyte-directed siRNA delivery revealing cyclin D1 as an anti-inflammatory target. Science (New York, NY) 319, 627630.
  • Del Peso, L., Gonzalez-Garcia, M., Page, C., Herrera, R., and Nunez, G. (1997). Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt. Science 278, 687689.
  • Petri-Fink, A., Chastellain, M., Juillerat-Jeanneret, L., Ferrari, A., and Hofmann, H. (2005). Development of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for interaction with human cancer cells. Biomaterials 26, 26852694.
  • Pluschke, G., Vanek, M., Evans, A., Dittmar, T., Schmid, P., Itin, P., Filardo, E.J., and Reisfeld, R.A. (1996). Molecular cloning of a human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 93, 97109715.
  • Radin, N.S. (2001). Killing cancer cells by poly-drug elevation of ceramide levels: a hypothesis whose time has come? Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 193204.
  • Reintgen, D.S., McCarty, K.M. Jr, Cox, E., and Seigler, H.F. (1982). Malignant melanoma in black American and white American populations. A comparative review. JAMA 248, 18561859.
  • Rizvi, S.M., Qu, C.F., Song, Y.J., Raja, C., and Allen, B.J. (2005). In vivo studies of pharmacokinetics and efficacy of Bismuth-213 labeled antimelanoma monoclonal antibody 9.2.27. Cancer Biol. Ther. 4, 763768.
  • Robertson, G.P. (2005). Functional and therapeutic significance of Akt deregulation in malignant melanoma. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 24, 273285.
  • Santel, A., Aleku, M., Keil, O. et al. (2006). RNA interference in the mouse vascular endothelium by systemic administration of siRNA-lipoplexes for cancer therapy. Gene Ther. 13, 13601370.
  • Schumacher, R., Amacker, M., Neuhaus, D., Rosenthal, R., Groeper, C., Heberer, M., Spagnoli, G.C., Zurbriggen, R., and Adamina, M. (2005). Efficient induction of tumoricidal cytotoxic T lymphocytes by HLA-A0201 restricted, melanoma associated, L(27)Melan-A/MART-1(26-35) peptide encapsulated into virosomes in vitro. Vaccine 23, 55725582.
  • Seib, F.P., Jones, A.T., and Duncan, R. (2007). Comparison of the endocytic properties of linear and branched PEIs, and cationic PAMAM dendrimers in B16f10 melanoma cells. J. Control Release 117, 291300.
  • Seydel, C. (2003). Quantum dots get wet. Science 300, 8081.
  • Shabbits, J.A., and Mayer, L.D. (2003a). High ceramide content liposomes with in vivo antitumor activity. Anticancer Res. 23, 36633669.
  • Shabbits, J.A., and Mayer, L.D. (2003b). Intracellular delivery of ceramide lipids via liposomes enhances apoptosis in vitro. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1612, 98106.
  • Shankar, P., Manjunath, N., and Lieberman, J. (2005). The prospect of silencing disease using RNA interference. JAMA 293, 13671373.
  • Sharma, A., Trivedi, N.R., Zimmerman, M.A., Tuveson, D.A., Smith, C.D., and Robertson, G.P. (2005). Mutant V599EB-Raf regulates growth and vascular development of malignant melanoma tumors. Cancer Res. 65, 24122421.
  • Sharma, A., Tran, M.A., Liang, S., Sharma, A.K., Amin, S., Smith, C.D., Dong, C., and Robertson, G.P. (2006). Targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the mutant (v600e) b-raf signaling cascade effectively inhibits melanoma lung metastases. Cancer Res. 66, 82008209.
  • Shiku, H., Takahashi, T., and Oettgen, H.F. (1976). Cell surface antigens of human malignant melanoma. II. Serological typing with immune adherence assays and definition of two new surface antigens. J. Exp. Med. 144, 873881.
  • Shiraga, E., Barichello, J.M., Ishida, T., and Kiwada, H. (2008). A metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide combined with PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin has a highly antitumor effect in an experimental pulmonary metastatic mouse model. Int. J. Pharm. 353, 65.
  • Singh, M. (1999). Transferrin as A targeting ligand for liposomes and anticancer drugs. Curr. Pharm. Des. 5, 443451.
  • Singh, R., Pantarotto, D., McCarthy, D., Chaloin, O., Hoebeke, J., Partidos, C.D., Briand, J.P., Prato, M., Bianco, A., and Kostarelos, K. (2005). Binding and condensation of plasmid DNA onto functionalized carbon nanotubes: toward the construction of nanotube-based gene delivery vectors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 43884396.
  • Sinico, C., Manconi, M., Peppi, M., Lai, F., Valenti, D., and Fadda, A.M. (2005). Liposomes as carriers for dermal delivery of tretinoin: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation and vesicle-skin interaction. J. Control Release 103, 123136.
  • Smylie, M.G., Wong, R., Mihalcioiu, C., Lee, C., and Pouliot, J. (2007). A phase II, open label, monotherapy study of liposomal doxorubicin in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Invest. New Drugs 25, 155.
  • Stahl, J.M., Cheung, M., Sharma, A., Trivedi, N.R., Shanmugam, S., and Robertson, G.P. (2003). Loss of PTEN promotes tumor development in malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 63, 28812890.
  • Stahl, J.M., Sharma, A., Cheung, M., Zimmerman, M., Cheng, J.Q., Bosenberg, M.W., Kester, M., Sandirasegarane, L., and Robertson, G.P. (2004). Deregulated Akt3 activity promotes development of malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 64, 70027010.
  • Stover, T., and Kester, M. (2003). Liposomal delivery enhances short-chain ceramide-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 307, 468475.
  • Stover, T.C., Sharma, A., Robertson, G.P., and Kester, M. (2005). Systemic delivery of liposomal short-chain ceramide limits solid tumor growth in murine models of breast adenocarcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 34653474.
  • Strieth, S., Eichhorn, M.E., Werner, A., Sauer, B., Teifel, M., Michaelis, U., Berghaus, A., and Dellian, M. (2008). Paclitaxel encapsulated in cationic liposomes increases tumor microvessel leakiness and improves therapeutic efficacy in combination with Cisplatin. Clinical Cancer Res. 14, 46034611.
  • Suzuki, R., Takizawa, T., Negishi, Y., Utoguchi, N., Sawamura, K., Tanaka, K., Namai, E., Oda, Y., Matsumura, Y., and Maruyama, K. (2008). Tumor specific ultrasound enhanced gene transfer in vivo with novel liposomal bubbles. J. Control Release 125, 137144.
  • Tasciotti, E., Liu, X., Bhavane, R. et al. (2008). Mesoporous silicon particles as a multistage delivery system for imaging and therapeutic applications. Nat. nanotechnol. 3, 151157.
  • Toker, A., and Yoeli-Lerner, M. (2006). Akt signaling and cancer: surviving but not moving on. Cancer Res. 66, 39633966.
  • Tran, M.A., Gowda, R., Sharma, A., Park, E.J., Adair, J., Kester, M., Smith, N.B., and Robertson, G.P. (2008a). Targeting V600EB-Raf and Akt3 using nanoliposomal-small interfering RNA inhibits cutaneous melanocytic lesion development. Cancer Res. 68, 76387649.
  • Tran, M.A., Smith, C.D., Kester, M., and Robertson, G.P. (2008b). Combining nanoliposomal ceramide with sorafenib synergistically inhibits melanoma and breast cancer cell survival to decrease tumor development. Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 35713581.
  • Treat, J., Damjanov, N., Huang, C., Zrada, S., and Rahman, A. (2001). Liposomal-encapsulated chemotherapy: preliminary results of a phase I study of a novel liposomal paclitaxel. Oncology (Williston Park) 15, 4448.
  • Tuveson, D.A., Weber, B.L., and Herlyn, M. (2003). BRAF as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma and other malignancies. Cancer Cell 4, 9598.
  • Verma, U.N., Surabhi, R.M., Schmaltieg, A., Becerra, C., and Gaynor, R.B. (2003). Small interfering RNAs directed against beta-catenin inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of colon cancer cells. Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 12911300.
  • Villares, G.J., Zigler, M., Wang, H. et al. (2008). Targeting melanoma growth and metastasis with systemic delivery of liposome-incorporated protease-activated receptor-1 small interfering RNA. Cancer Res. 68, 90789086.
  • Vorhies, J.S., and Nemunaitis, J. (2007). Nonviral delivery vehicles for use in short hairpin RNA-based cancer therapies. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 7, 373382.
  • Waldmann, V., Wacker, J., and Deichmann, M. (2002). Absence of mutations in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) in malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 12, 4550.
  • Wang, F., Van Brocklyn, J.R., Hobson, J.P., Movafagh, S., Zukowska-Grojec, Z., Milstien, S., and Spiegel, S. (1999). Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulates cell migration through a G(i)-coupled cell surface receptor. Potential involvement in angiogenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3534335350.
  • Wang, M.D., Shin, D.M., Simons, J.W., and Nie, S. (2007a). Nanotechnology for targeted cancer therapy. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 7, 833837.
  • Wang, Q., Ilves, H., Chu, P., Contag, C.H., Leake, D., Johnston, B.H., and Kaspar, R.L. (2007b). Delivery and inhibition of reporter genes by small interfering rnas in a mouse skin model. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127, 25772584.
  • Wu, X., Liu, H., Liu, J., Haley, K.N., Treadway, J.A., Larson, J.P., Ge, N., Peale, F., and Bruchez, M.P. (2003). Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots. Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 4146.
  • Wu, W., Wieckowski, S., Pastorin, G., Benincasa, M., Klumpp, C., Briand, J.P., Gennaro, R., Prato, M., and Bianco, A. (2005). Targeted delivery of amphotericin B to cells by using functionalized carbon nanotubes. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44, 63586362.
  • Yang, J., Chen, H., Vlahov, I.R., Cheng, J.X., and Low, P.S. (2007). Characterization of the pH of folate receptor-containing endosomes and the rate of hydrolysis of internalized acid-labile folate-drug conjugates. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 321, 462468.
  • Yano, J., Hirabayashi, K., Nakagawa, S. et al. (2004). Antitumor activity of small interfering RNA/cationic liposome complex in mouse models of cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 77217726.
  • Yazdi, A.S., Palmedo, G., Flaig, M.J. et al. (2003). Mutations of the BRAF gene in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 11601162.