SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aberdam, E., Bertolotto, C., Sviderskaya, E.V., de Thillot, V., Hemesath, T.J., Fisher, D.E., Bennett, D.C., Ortonne, J.P., and Ballotti, R. (1998). Involvement of microphthalmia in the inhibition of melanocyte lineage differentiation and of melanogenesis by agouti signal protein. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1956019565.
  • Acconcia, F., Sigismund, S., and Polo, S. (2009). Ubiquitin in trafficking: the network at work. Exp. Cell Res. 315, 16101618.
  • Alizadeh, A., Hong, L.Z., Kaelin, C.B., Raudsepp, T., Manuel, H., and Barsh, G.S. (2009). Genetics of Sex-linked yellow in the Syrian hamster. Genetics 181, 14271436.
  • Anderson, T.M., vonHoldt, B.M., Candille, S.I. et al. (2009). Molecular and evolutionary history of melanism in North American gray wolves. Science 323, 13391343.
  • Ardley, H.C., and Robinson, P.A. (2005). E3 ubiquitin ligases. Essays Biochem. 41, 1530.
  • Azouz, A., Gunn, T.M., and Duke-Cohan, J.S. (2007). Juvenile-onset loss of lipid-raft domains in attractin-deficient mice. Exp. Cell Res. 313, 761771.
  • Bennett, D.C., and Lamoreux, M.L. (2003). The color loci of mice – a genetic century. Pigment Cell Res. 16, 333344.
  • Berryere, T.G., Kerns, J.A., Barsh, G.S., and Schmutz, S.M. (2005). Association of an Agouti allele with fawn or sable coat color in domestic dogs. Mamm. Genome 16, 262272.
  • Bertolotto, C., Abbe, P., Hemesath, T.J., Bille, K., Fisher, D.E., Ortonne, J.P., and Ballotti, R. (1998). Microphthalmia gene product as a signal transducer in cAMP-induced differentiation of melanocytes. J. Cell Biol. 142, 827835.
  • Blanchard, S.G., Harris, C.O., Ittoop, O.R., Nichols, J.S., Parks, D.J., Truesdale, A.T., and Wilkison, W.O. (1995). Agouti antagonism of melanocortin binding and action in the B16F10 murine melanoma cell line. Biochemistry 34, 1040610411.
  • Bonilla, C., Boxill, L.A., Donald, S.A., Williams, T., Sylvester, N., Parra, E.J., Dios, S., Norton, H.L., Shriver, M.D., and Kittles, R.A. (2005). The 8818G allele of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene is ancestral and is associated with darker skin color in African Americans. Hum. Genet. 116, 402406.
  • Box, N.F., Wyeth, J.R., O’Gorman, L.E., Martin, N.G., and Sturm, R.A. (1997). Characterization of melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor variant alleles in twins with red hair. Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 18911897.
  • Bronson, R.T., Donahue, L.R., Samples, R., Kim, J.H., and Naggert, J.K. (2001). Mice with mutations in the mahogany gene Atrn have cerebral spongiform changes. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60, 724730.
  • Bultman, S.J., Michaud, E.J., and Woychik, R.P. (1992). Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus. Cell 71, 11951204.
  • Candille, S.I., Kaelin, C.B., Cattanach, B.M., Yu, B., Thompson, D.A., Nix, M.A., Kerns, J.A., Schmutz, S.M., Millhauser, G.L., and Barsh, G.S. (2007). A -defensin mutation causes black coat color in domestic dogs. Science 318, 14181423.
  • Castle, W.E. (1941). Influence of certain color mutations on body size in mice, rats, and rabbits. Genetics 26, 177191.
  • Chai, B.X., Pogozheva, I.D., Lai, Y.M., Li, J.Y., Neubig, R.R., Mosberg, H.I., and Gantz, I. (2005). Receptor-antagonist interactions in the complexes of agouti and agouti-related protein with human melanocortin 1 and 4 receptors. Biochemistry 44, 34183431.
  • Chakrabarti, O., and Hegde, R.S. (2009). Functional depletion of mahogunin by cytosolically exposed prion protein contributes to neurodegeneration. Cell 137, 11361147.
  • Chakraborty, A.K., Funasaka, Y., Slominski, A., Ermak, G., Hwang, J., Pawelek, J.M., and Ichihashi, M. (1996). Production and release of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptides by human melanocytes and keratinocytes in culture: regulation by ultraviolet B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1313, 130138.
  • Chen, Z.J., and Sun, L.J. (2009). Nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitin in cell signaling. Mol. Cell 33, 275286.
  • Cleffmann, G. (1963). Agouti pigment cells in situ and in vitro. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 100, 749761.
  • Cone, R.D., Mountjoy, K.G., Robbins, L.S., Nadeau, J.H., Johnson, K.R., Roselli-Rehfuss, L., and Mortrud, M.T. (1993). Cloning and functional characterization of a family of receptors for the melanotropic peptides. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 680, 342363.
  • Cota, C.D., Bagher, P., Pelc, P., Smith, C.O., Bodner, C.R., and Gunn, T.M. (2006). Mice with mutations in Mahogunin ring finger-1 (Mgrn1) exhibit abnormal patterning of the left-right axis. Dev. Dyn. 235, 34383447.
  • Cota, C.D., Liu, R.R., Sumberac, T.M., Jung, S., Vencato, D., Millet, Y.H., and Gunn, T.M. (2008). Genetic and phenotypic studies of the dark-like mutant mouse. Genesis 46, 562573.
  • Creemers, J.W., Pritchard, L.E., Gyte, A. et al. (2006). Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83-132: interaction between AGRP83-132 and melanocortin receptors cannot be influenced by syndecan-3. Endocrinology 147, 16211631.
  • Cropley, J.E., Suter, C.M., Beckman, K.B., and Martin, D.I. (2006). Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine Avy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 1730817312.
  • Cuenot, L. (1905). Les races pures et leurs combinaisons chez les souris (4e note). Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen., 4e(ser), 3.
  • Deshaies, R.J., and Joazeiro, C.A. (2009). RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78, 399434.
  • Dinulescu, D.M., Fan, W., Boston, B.A., McCall, K., Lamoreux, M.L., Moore, K.J., Montagno, J., and Cone, R.D. (1998). Mahogany (mg) stimulates feeding and increases basal metabolic rate independent of its suppression of agouti. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 1270712712.
  • Duhl, D.M., Vrieling, H., Miller, K.A., Wolff, G.L., and Barsh, G.S. (1994a). Neomorphic agouti mutations in obese yellow mice. Nat. Genet. 8, 5965.
  • Duhl, D.M., Stevens, M.E., Vrieling, H., Saxon, P.J., Miller, M.W., Epstein, C.J., and Barsh, G.S. (1994b). Pleiotropic effects of the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation explained by deletion of a maternally expressed gene and the simultaneous production of agouti fusion RNAs. Development 120, 16951708.
  • Duke-Cohan, J.S., Gu, J., McLaughlin, D.F., Xu, Y., Freeman, G.J., and Schlossman, S.F. (1998). Attractin (DPPT-L), a member of the CUB family of cell adhesion and guidance proteins, is secreted by activated human T lymphocytes and modulates immune cell interactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 1133611341.
  • Dunn, L.C. (1920). he sable varieties of mice. Am. Nat. 54, 247261.
  • Enshell-Seijffers, D., Lindon, C., and Morgan, B.A. (2008). The serine protease corin is a novel modifier of the agouti pathway. Development 135, 217225.
  • Falconer, D.S. (1956). New mutants. Mouse News Letter 15, 23.
  • Falconer, D.S. (1957). Research News. Mouse News Letter 17, 40.
  • Garcia-Borron, J.C., Sanchez-Laorden, B.L., and Jimenez-Cervantes, C. (2005). Melanocortin-1 receptor structure and functional regulation. Pigment Cell Res. 18, 393410.
  • Gunn, T.M., Miller, K.A., He, L., Hyman, R.W., Davis, R.W., Azarani, A., Schlossman, S.F., Duke-Cohan, J.S., and Barsh, G.S. (1999). The mouse mahogany locus encodes a transmembrane form of human attractin. Nature 398, 152156.
  • Gunn, T.M., Inui, T., Kitada, K., Ito, S., Wakamatsu, K., He, L., Bouley, D.M., Serikawa, T., and Barsh, G.S. (2001). Molecular and phenotypic analysis of Attractin mutant mice. Genetics 158, 16831695.
  • Haqq, A.M., Rene, P., Kishi, T., Khong, K., Lee, C.E., Liu, H., Friedman, J.M., Elmquist, J.K., and Cone, R.D. (2003). Characterization of a novel binding partner of the melanocortin-4 receptor: attractin-like protein. Biochem. J. 376, 595605.
  • Harris, B., Ward-Bailey, P., Johnson, K., Elcher, E., and Washburn, L. (2003). A new recessive color mutation on mouse chromosome 7, dark-like. Mouse Mutant Resources Web Site, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine (http://www.jax.org/mmr), MGI Direct Data Submission 2003.
  • He, L., Gunn, T.M., Bouley, D.M., Lu, X.Y., Watson, S.J., Schlossman, S.F., Duke-Cohan, J.S., and Barsh, G.S. (2001). A biochemical function for attractin in agouti-induced pigmentation and obesity. Nat. Genet. 27, 4047.
  • He, L., Lu, X.Y., Jolly, A.F., Eldridge, A.G., Watson, S.J., Jackson, P.K., Barsh, G.S., and Gunn, T.M. (2003). Spongiform degeneration in mahoganoid mutant mice. Science 299, 710712.
  • Heaney, J.D., Michelson, M.V., Youngren, K.K., Lam, M.-Y.J., and Nadeau, J.H. (2009). Deletion of eiF2beta suppresses testicular cancer incidence and causes recessive lethality in agouti-yellow mice. Hum. Mol. Genet. 18, 13951404.
  • Hida, T., Wakamatsu, K., Sviderskaya, E.V. et al. (2009). Agouti protein, mahogunin, and attractin in pheomelanogenesis and melanoblast-like alteration of melanocytes: a cAMP-independent pathway. Pigment Cell. Melanoma Res. 22, 623634.
  • Hoekstra, H.E., Hirschmann, R.J., Bundey, R.A., Insel, P.A., and Crossland, J.P. (2006). A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern. Science 313, 101104.
  • Hollander, W.F., and Gowen, J.W. (1956). n extreme non-agouti mutant in the mouse. J. Hered. 47, 221224.
  • Hunt, G., and Thody, A.J. (1995). Agouti protein can act independently of melanocyte-stimulating hormone to inhibit melanogenesis. J. Endocrinol. 147, R1R4.
  • Jackson, P.J., Douglas, N.R., Chai, B., Binkley, J., Sidow, A., Barsh, G.S., and Millhauser, G.L. (2006). Structural and molecular evolutionary analysis of Agouti and Agouti-related proteins. Chem. Biol. 13, 12971305.
  • Jackson, I.J., Budd, P.S., Keighren, M., and McKie, L. (2007). Humanized MC1R transgenic mice reveal human specific receptor function. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, 23412348.
  • Jiao, J., Sun, K., Walker, W.P., Bagher, P., Cota, C.D., and Gunn, T.M. (2009a). Abnormal regulation of TSG101 in mice with spongiform neurodegeneration. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1792, 10271035.
  • Jiao, J., Kim, H.Y., Liu, R.R., Hogan, C.A., Sun, K., Tam, L.M., and Gunn, T.M. (2009b). Transgenic analysis of the physiological functions of Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 isoforms. Genesis 47, 524534.
  • Kanetsky, P.A., Swoyer, J., Panossian, S., Holmes, R., Guerry, D., and Rebbeck, T.R. (2002). A polymorphism in the agouti signaling protein gene is associated with human pigmentation. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70, 770775.
  • Kerje, S., Lind, J., Schutz, K., Jensen, P., and Andersson, L. (2003). Melanocortin 1-receptor (MC1R) mutations are associated with plumage colour in chicken. Anim. Genet. 34, 241248.
  • Kerns, J.A., Newton, J., Berryere, T.G., Rubin, E.M., Cheng, J.F., Schmutz, S.M., and Barsh, G.S. (2004). Characterization of the dog Agouti gene and a nonagouti mutation in German Shepherd Dogs. Mamm. Genome 15, 798808.
  • Kim, B.Y., Olzmann, J.A., Barsh, G.S., Chin, L.S., and Li, L. (2007). Spongiform neurodegeneration-associated E3 ligase Mahogunin ubiquitylates TSG101 and regulates endosomal trafficking. Mol. Biol. Cell 18, 11291142.
  • Kingsley, E.P., Manceau, M., Wiley, C.D., and Hoekstra, H.E. (2009). Melanism in peromyscus is caused by independent mutations in agouti. PLoS ONE 4, e6435.
  • Klungland, H., and Vage, D.I. (2003). Pigmentary switches in domestic animal species. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 994, 331338.
  • Kondo, A., Sato, Y., and Nagara, H. (1991). An ultrastructural study of oligodendrocytes in zitter rat: a new animal model for hypomyelination in the CNS. J. Neurocytol. 20, 929939.
  • Kondo, A., Sendoh, S., Akazawa, K., Sato, Y., and Nagara, H. (1992). Early myelination in zitter rat: morphological, immunocytochemical and morphometric studies. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 67, 217228.
  • Kondo, A., Sendoh, S., Miyata, K., and Takamatsu, J. (1995). Spongy degeneration in the zitter rat: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. J. Neurocytol. 24, 533544.
  • Krude, H., Biebermann, H., Luck, W., Horn, R., Brabant, G., and Gruters, A. (1998). Severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair pigmentation caused by POMC mutations in humans. Nat. Genet. 19, 155157.
  • Kuramoto, T., Kitada, K., Inui, T. et al. (2001). Attractin/mahogany/zitter plays a critical role in myelination of the central nervous system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2001, 98.
  • Kuwamura, M., Maeda, M., Kuramoto, T. et al. (2002). The myelin vacuolation (mv) rat with a null mutation in the attractin gene. Lab. Invest. 82, 12791286.
  • Lane, P.W. (1960). New Mutants. Mouse News Letter 22, 35.
  • Lane, P.W., and Green, M.C. (1960). Mahogany, a recessive color mutation in linkage group V of the mouse. J. Hered. 51, 228230.
  • Le Pape, E., Wakamatsu, K., Ito, S., Wolber, R., and Hearing, V.J. (2008). Regulation of eumelanin/pheomelanin synthesis and visible pigmentation in melanocytes by ligands of the melanocortin 1 receptor. Pigment Cell. Melanoma Res. 21, 477486.
  • Le Pape, E., Passeron, T., Giubellino, A., Valencia, J.C., Wolber, R., and Hearing, V.J. (2009). Microarray analysis sheds light on the dedifferentiating role of agouti signal protein in murine melanocytes via the Mc1r. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 106, 18021807.
  • Levy, C., Khaled, M., and Fisher, D.E. (2006). MITF: master regulator of melanocyte development and melanoma oncogene. Trends Mol. Med. 12, 406414.
  • Li, W., and Ye, Y. (2008). Polyubiquitin chains: functions, structures, and mechanisms. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65, 23972406.
  • Linnen, C.R., Kingsley, E.P., Jensen, J.D., and Hoekstra, H.E. (2009). On the origin and spread of an adaptive allele in deer mice. Science 325, 10951098.
  • Little, C.C. (1916). he occurrence of three recognized color mutations in mice. Am. Nat. 50, 335349.
  • Lu, D., Willard, D., Patel, I.R., Kadwell, S., Overton, L., Kost, T., Luther, M., Chen, W., Woychik, R.P., and Wilkison, W.O. (1994). Agouti protein is an antagonist of the melanocyte-stimulating-hormone receptor. Nature 371, 799802.
  • Marklund, L., Moller, M.J., Sandberg, K., and Andersson, L. (1996). A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses. Mamm. Genome 7, 895899.
  • Millar, S.E., Miller, M.W., Stevens, M.E., and Barsh, G.S. (1995). Expression and transgenic studies of the mouse agouti gene provide insight into the mechanisms by which mammalian coat color patterns are generated. Development 121, 32233232.
  • Miller, M.W., Duhl, D.M., Vrieling, H., Cordes, S.P., Ollmann, M.M., Winkes, B.M., and Barsh, G.S. (1993). Cloning of the mouse agouti gene predicts a secreted protein ubiquitously expressed in mice carrying the lethal yellow mutation. Genes Dev. 7, 454467.
  • Miller, K.A., Gunn, T.M., Carrasquillo, M.M., Lamoreux, M.L., Galbraith, D.B., and Barsh, G.S. (1997). Genetic studies of the mouse mutations mahogany and mahoganoid. Genetics 146, 14071415.
  • Miltenberger, R.J., Mynatt, R.L., Wilkinson, J.E., and Woychik, R.P. (1997). The role of the agouti gene in the yellow obese syndrome. J. Nutr. 127, 1902S1907S.
  • Mogil, J.S., Ritchie, J., Smith, S.B. et al. (2005). Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants affect pain and mu-opioid analgesia in mice and humans. J. Med. Genet. 42, 583587.
  • Morgan, H.D., Sutherland, H.G., Martin, D.I., and Whitelaw, E. (1999). Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse. Nat. Genet. 23, 314318.
  • Nachman, M.W., Hoekstra, H.E., and D’Agostino, S.L. (2003). The genetic basis of adaptive melanism in pocket mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 100, 52685273.
  • Nagle, D.L., McGrail, S.H., Vitale, J. et al. (1999). The mahogany protein is a receptor involved in suppression of obesity. Nature 398, 148152.
  • Nandi, D., Tahiliani, P., Kumar, A., and Chandu, D. (2006). The ubiquitin-proteasome system. J. Biosci. 31, 137155.
  • Ollmann, M.M., and Barsh, G.S. (1999). Down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling mediated by the amino terminus of Agouti protein in Xenopus melanophores. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1583715846.
  • Ollmann, M.M., Wilson, B.D., Yang, Y.K., Kerns, J.A., Chen, Y., Gantz, I., and Barsh, G.S. (1997). Antagonism of central melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein. Science 278, 135138.
  • Ollmann, M.M., Lamoreux, M.L., Wilson, B.D., and Barsh, G.S. (1998). Interaction of Agouti protein with the melanocortin 1 receptor in vitro and in vivo. Genes Dev. 12, 316330.
  • Perez-Oliva, A.B., Olivares, C., Jiménez-Cervantes, C., and García-Borrón, J.C. (2009). Mahogunin ring finger-1 (MGRN1) E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibits signaling from melanocortin receptor by competition with Galphas. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 3171431725.
  • Phan, L.K., Lin, F., LeDuc, C.A., Chung, W.K., and Leibel, R.L. (2002). The mouse mahoganoid coat color mutation disrupts a novel C3HC4 RING domain protein. J. Clin. Invest. 110, 14491459.
  • Phillips, R.J.S. (1963). New mutant: non-agouti curly. Mouse News Letter 29, 38.
  • Rees, J.L. (2003). Genetics of hair and skin color. Annu. Rev. Genet. 37, 6790.
  • Robbins, L.S., Nadeau, J.H., Johnson, K.R., Kelly, M.A., Roselli-Rehfuss, L., Baack, E., Mountjoy, K.G., and Cone, R.D. (1993). Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function. Cell 72, 827834.
  • Rouzaud, F., Annereau, J.P., Valencia, J.C., Costin, G.E., and Hearing, V.J. (2003). Regulation of melanocortin 1 receptor expression at the mRNA and protein levels by its natural agonist and antagonist. FASEB J. 17, 21542156.
  • Sakai, C., Ollmann, M., Kobayashi, T., Abdel-Malek, Z., Muller, J., Vieira, W.D., Imokawa, G., Barsh, G.S., and Hearing, V.J. (1997). Modulation of murine melanocyte function in vitro by agouti signal protein. EMBO J. 16, 35443552.
  • Saksena, S., Sun, J., Chu, T., and Emr, S.D. (2007). ESCRTing proteins in the endocytic pathway. Trends Biochem. Sci. 32, 561573.
  • Sanchez-Mas, J., Hahmann, C., Gerritsen, I., Garcia-Borron, J.C., and Jimenez-Cervantes, C. (2004). Agonist-independent, high constitutive activity of the human melanocortin 1 receptor. Pigment Cell Res. 17, 386395.
  • Santini, F., Maffei, M., Pelosini, C., Salvetti, G., Scartabelli, G., and Pinchera, A. (2009). Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations in obesity. Adv. Clin. Chem. 48, 95109.
  • Schmidt-Kuntzel, A., Nelson, G., David, V.A., Schaffer, A.A., Eizirik, E., Roelke, M.E., Kehler, J.S., Hannah, S.S., O’Brien, S.J., and Menotti-Raymond, M. (2009). A domestic cat X chromosome linkage map and the sex-linked orange locus: mapping of orange, multiple origins and epistasis over nonagouti. Genetics 181, 14151425.
  • Sharov, A.A., Fessing, M., Atoyan, R., Sharova, T.Y., Haskell-Luevano, C., Weiner, L., Funa, K., Brissette, J.L., Gilchrest, B.A., and Botchkarev, V.A. (2005). Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling controls hair pigmentation by means of cross-talk with the melanocortin receptor-1 pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9398.
  • Siegrist, W., Willard, D.H., Wilkison, W.O., and Eberle, A.N. (1996). Agouti protein inhibits growth of B16 melanoma cells in vitro by acting through melanocortin receptors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 218, 171175.
  • Siegrist, W., Drozdz, R., Cotti, R., Willard, D.H., Wilkison, W.O., and Eberle, A.N. (1997). Interactions of alpha-melanotropin and agouti on B16 melanoma cells: evidence for inverse agonism of agouti. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. 17, 7598.
  • Slominski, A., Wortsman, J., Luger, T., Paus, R., and Solomon, S. (2000). Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress. Physiol. Rev. 80, 9791020.
  • Slominski, A., Plonka, P.M., Pisarchik, A., Smart, J.L., Tolle, V., Wortsman, J., and Low, M.J. (2005). Preservation of eumelanin hair pigmentation in proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice on a nonagouti (a/a) genetic background. Endocrinology 146, 12451253.
  • Sulem, P., Gudbjartsson, D.F., Stacey, S.N. et al. (2008). Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans. Nat. Genet. 40, 835837.
  • Sun, K., Johnson, B.S., and Gunn, T.M. (2007). Mitochondrial dysfunction precedes neurodegeneration in mahogunin (Mgrn1) mutant mice. Neurobiol. Aging 28, 18401852.
  • Valverde, P., Healy, E., Jackson, I., Rees, J.L., and Thody, A.J. (1995). Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Nat. Genet. 11, 328330.
  • Van Raamsdonk, C.D., Barsh, G.W., Wakamtsu, K., and Ito, S. (2009). ndependent regulation of hair and skin color by two G protein-coupled pathways. Pigment Cell. Melanoma Res. 22, 819826.
  • Voisey, J., Gomez-Cabrera Mdel, C., Smit, D.J., Leonard, J.H., Sturm, R.A., and van Daal, A. (2006). A polymorphism in the agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with decreased levels of mRNA. Pigment Cell Res. 19, 226231.
  • Vrieling, H., Duhl, D.M., Millar, S.E., Miller, K.A., and Barsh, G.S. (1994). Differences in dorsal and ventral pigmentation result from regional expression of the mouse agouti gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 91, 56675671.
  • Wagner, K.-U., Krempler, A., Qi, Y., Park, K., Henry, M.D., Triplett, A.A., Riedlinger, G., Rucker III, E.B., and Hennighausen, L. (2003). Tsg101 is essential for cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival of embryonic and adult tissues. Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 150162.
  • Walker, W.P., and Gunn, T.M. (2010). Piecing together the pigment-type switching puzzle. Pigment Cell. Melanoma Res. 23, 46.
  • Walker, W.P., Aradhya, S., Hu, C.L., Shen, S., Zhang, W., Azarani, A., Lu, X., Barsh, G.S., and Gunn, T.M. (2007). Genetic analysis of attractin homologs. Genesis 45, 744756.
  • Wickliffe, K., Williamson, A., Jin, L., and Rape, M. (2009). The multiple layers of ubiquitin-dependent cell cycle control. Chem. Rev. 109, 15371548.
  • Willard, D.H., Bodnar, W., Harris, C., Kiefer, L., Nichols, J.S., Blanchard, S., Hoffman, C., Moyer, M., Burkhart, W., and Weiel, J. (1995). Agouti structure and function: characterization of a potent alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor antagonist. Biochemistry 34, 1234112346.
  • Yaswen, L., Diehl, N., Brennan, M.B., and Hochgeschwender, U. (1999). Obesity in the mouse model of pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency responds to peripheral melanocortin. Nat. Med. 5, 10661070.