• Reintroductions;
  • Ursus arctos arctos;
  • transboundary management;
  • Habitat Directive;
  • carnivores;
  • policy sciences


Transboundary management of large carnivores, such as that of bears in the human dominated landscapes in Europe is rife with challenges. During summer 2006, brown bear JJ1, one of the 27 cubs born in the Central Alps between 2002 and 2006, as a result of reintroduction efforts carried out in Trentino, Italy, wandered into Austria and Germany. Despite the public outcry he was eventually shot. The death of JJ1 turned into a real international incident that prompted the countries affected to meet and discuss how to manage bears at transboundary level. The author uses the policy sciences approach to map out the social context in which reintroductions and management of large carnivores are occurring and from there suggest possible approaches to improve their success.