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Appendix S1 Supporting information on methods.

Figure A1 Locations of regions used in analyses of regional variation of ecosystem services by tiered and single conservation strategies

Table A1 The cutoff value used to convert modelled bird distribution values (Supporting Methods) to binary presences (> cutoff) and absences (< cutoff).

Table A2 Summary of values used in calculating the gross margin of agriculture production (Supporting Methods). Gross margins per unit area in £/ha unless otherwise indicated. The decoupled single payment subsidy is removed in all cases; the removal of additional subsidies is indicated in the notes where applicable.

Table A3 Changes in the Biodiversity ratios depending on the minimum area of a conservation strategy required for it to be 'present' in a 2 km grid square. 'Area (%) of Conservation Strategy' is the percent of England that the strategy covers using a particular cutoff. We use 0.40 for the main results, as this best corresponds to the actual area covered by all strategies.

Table A4. Biodiversity results (BAP species) by species group for three conservation strategies -- Statutory Protected Areas (StPA), Protected Landscapes (PL) and the ESA agri-environment scheme (ESA) -- both in isolation and in combination. A ratio of >1 indicates that an ecosystem service is over-represented (more abundant than expected given the area of the strategy); values <1 indicate under-representation (Methods). The highest representation for each species group is shown in bold. Species were considered present in a strategy if >40% of a 2 × 2 km grid cell was within the given strategy or combination of strategies.

Table A5. 2 Representation of ecosystem services within three conservation strategies (in isolation and in combination) in three regions of England -- the Northwest (NW), Southwest (SW) and East of England (EE). A ratio of >1 indicates that an ecosystem service is over-represented (more abundant than expected given the area of the strategy); values <1 indicate under-representation (Methods). The highest ratio for each service for each region is shown in bold.

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Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.