Appendix S1. Questionnaire used to interview release event organizers at each temple.

Appendix S2. Questionnaire used to interview farmers in the vicinity of each water body to verify temple organizer reports and obtain information on other human activities (i.e., bullfrog hunting and farming). We also recorded sex of each farmer interviewed.

Appendix S3. Model averaging process used to evaluate the relative importance of each variable based on an information-theoretic method.

Appendix S4. Evidence for global occurrence of religious wildlife release: Bibliographic results of a search of literature and news reports, shown in Table 1. (Databases searched: ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Google Scholar, and Google News; Search terms included combinations of the following: “religion,” “religious,” “release,” “free,” “fang sheng,” “prayer,” “ritual,” “festival,” “Vesak day,” “Buddhist,” “Buddhism,” “Taoism,” “ritual,” “ceremony,” “animal,” “wildlife,” “fish,” “turtle,” “frog,” and “bird.”)

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