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Keywords:

  • History of Acta Ophthalmologica;
  • History of Ophthalmology;
  • Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology;
  • Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift

Abstract.

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

In the second half of the nineteenth century several ophthalmological journals appeared (Germany, England, France, United States). In the northern countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) an initiative lead to ‘Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift’ published in the scandinavian languages in the years 1889–92. The ‘driving force’ behind the journal was the first professor in Ophthalmology in Copenhagen, Dr. Edmund Hansen Grut. The purpose with this presentation is to give the background for the rise and fall of the journal which was an attempt to promote Nordic Ophthalmology. The authors turned out, however, to be mainly those involved as editors. The journal never gained broad acceptance and it simply stopped in 1892, without any closing remarks. In spite of its short life the journal should be remembered for the very first publication on the arcuate scotoma, the Bjerrum scotoma from 1889. Although shortlived the initiative was not in vain, as can be read in the preface to the very first volume of Acta ophthalmologica.


Background

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

In the second half of the 19th century, there was an excited discussion in the university environment in Copenhagen about the appropriateness of separating surgical specialties (Norrie 1925), a trend that was already advancing rapidly in Europe. A vociferous proponent of keeping the education unified was professor in surgery Matthias Saxtorph, who had translated into Danish the textbook recommended at the university (Schauenburg 1856) and in its preface strongly argued his point in favour of nonspecialisation. The year before, in an article in ‘Bibliotek f. Læger’ (1855), he had derided ophthalmoscopy as ‘charlatanism’. The establishment of the first two eye clinics in Copenhagen (1852, Melchior, Lehmann) provoked great opposition in the faculty (Norrie 1925).

However, the fierce battle in Copenhagen seems to have ended when Edmund Hansen Grut (Fig. 1) was appointed professor in ophthalmology in 1888 – and already the following year started publishing the journal, Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift. It looked like a manifestation of the victory of ophthalmology.

image

Figure 1.  Photograph of Edmund Hansen Grut.

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Publishers

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The initiative to publish the new journal was no doubt taken by Dr. Edmund Hansen Grut, the newly appointed professor in Copenhagen. Through the life of the journal, he figured as its publisher ‘in association with’ Dr. Jannik Bjerrum (Copenhagen), Dr. G. Nordman (Helsinki), Dr. Hjalmar Schiøtz (Christiania) and Dr. Johan Widmark (Stockholm). The latter was appointed professor in Stockholm in 1891. Bjerrum was an assistant at Dr. Grut’s clinic in Copenhagen and succeeded Grut as professor in 1896. Schiøtz was professor in Christiania (Oslo) as from 1901. The editors during the years 1889–1892 were Bjerrum and Widmark.

The title page of the journal stated that it was ‘on consignment’ with Jacob Lund, Copenhagen. Who actually owned the journal, how large the circulation was and what the subscription price was is unknown today, however.

The dream

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The hopes pinned on the journal were expressed by the ‘publishers’ in the preface of the first volume (Volume I–II, 1889):

The number of physicians who dedicate their endeavours solely, more or less, to the Ophthalmological Speciality in the Nordic Region is now of no small magnitude and still, in our journals, we see only relatively few communications of ophthalmological content…. By gathering all reports in a Journal of Ophthalmology, the readership may be presumed to be distinctly expanded, and furthermore: A journal of such special character will necessarily encourage physicians who may have accumulated rich ophthalmological experience to let it be disseminated and serve the common good. Hitherto, the Nordic literature has for certain been lacking much in ophthalmological subjects.

First publication in 1889

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

As we now present the Journal to the world we pin our hopes … on our ophthalmological colleagues, who could not lend support to our venture in any better manner than by submitting Dissertations and Communications to us.

This last wish, that the Nordic ophthalmologists would help the editors with contributions to a vital journal, was not fulfilled, unfortunately. Already within a few years, the Nordic journal of ophthalmology had exhausted its vitality. The journal was published in the years 1889 (two volumes) and 1892 (three volumes), i.e. five volumes in all, each of about 200 pages. In addition to original pieces of work, the journal was intended to bring short abstracts from ophthalmological literature.

About the reason for the short life of the journal, we can only guess today, but we recognise the lack of backing that also led to the struggle to keep Acta Ophthalmologica alive half a century later.

Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

A glance at the tables of contents of the five volumes of the journal (Table 1) shows that about half the works were authored by the publishers. The total number of authors was merely 14. Thus, the contributors to the journal were a very small group of ophthalmologists, predominantly with an academic background. No publication had more than one author, which was in keeping with the scientific tradition of the time.

Table 1.   Overview of scientific works in the journal, Nordisk Ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift volumes I–V (1889–92).
Vol. I, 1–2
UdgiverneIndledning (1–2)
Edm. Hansen GrutBidrag til læren om skelens Pathogeni (3–32)
Hj. SchiøtzEt bidrag til læren om muskelforholdene i øjnene (33–52)
M. TscherningBidrag til det menneskelige Øjes Dioptrik (53–70)
J. WidmarkTill kännedomen om ophthalmia neonatorum i Sverige (71–94)
J. BjerrumBemærkninger om formindskelse af synsstyrken samt kliniske iagttagelser angående forholdet mellem synsstyrke, klarheds sans og farvesans (95–123)
Edm. Hansen GrutConjunctivitis æstivalis – Frühjahrskatarrh (124–131)
J. WidmarkNågra bakteriologisk-oftalmiatriska studier (132–137)
J. BjerrumLidt statistik over inflammatoriske tilfælde af kataraktextraktioner (138–143)
Litteraturudtog(144–167)
Vol. I, 3
J.WidmarkTill kännedomen om ophthalmia neonatorum i Sverige (169–203)
Gordon NorrieOftalmologiske småting (204–216)
Hj.SchiøtzEt bidrag til læren om muskelforholdene i øjnene (216–244)
Knud PontoppidanOphthalmoplegia externa (245–261)
Adolph GadEt Tilfælde af Resorptio cataractæ senilis intracapsularis (262–263)
Litteraturudtog(264–286)
Gruts kommentar til Schiøtz (287)
Vol. II, 1
Chr. GrauerEt Tilfælde af Ophthalmoplegia exterior perfecta bilateralis congenita (1–5)
J. BjerrumSmåbemærkninger fra den daglige praxis (6–22) 1) Om kokain, 2) Om tilbinding af øjet ved sygdomme i forreste dele, 3) Om symptomet lyssky ved inflammatoriske processer i øjets forreste dele
J. BjerrumEt tilfælde af let iridocyclitis med spontan arteriepuls i a. centralis retinæ (23–29)
J. BjerrumEt tilfælde af hemiamblyopia (hemianopsia incompleta) homonyma dextra (30–39)
Litteraturudtog(40–63)
Vol. II, 2
J. WidmarkNågra iakttagelser rörende ögonsymptom vid perifere trigeminusaffektioner (65–92)
A. GullstrandEn praktisk metod att bestämma hornhinnans astigmatism genom den s.k. denivelleringen af de oftalmometriska bilderne (93–104)
Lyder BortenNyt refraktions-øjenspeil med to brændvidder (105–109)
Litteraturudtog(110–139)
Vol. II, 3
J. BjerrumOm en tilføjelse til den sædvanlige synsfeltundersøgelse samt om synsfeltet ved glaukom (141–185)
Litteraturudtog(186–215)
Vol. III, 1
A. GullstrandOm Brännlinier vid Astigmatism (1–18)
Gordon NorrieOphthalmologiske småting (19–32)
Edmund JensenOm de med centralt Skotom forløbende Øjesygdomme (33–44)
Litteraturudtog(45–57)
Vol. III, 2
J. WidmarkOm verkan af de ultravioletta strålarna påögat (61–67)
C.M. HansenEt tilfælde af akut retrobulbær neuritis (68–71)
J. BjerrumEt tilfælde af hemianopsia partialis. Helbredelse. Lokaldiagnose mulig(71–84)
Litteraturudtog(86–114)
Vol. III, 3
Joh.WidmarkOm ögonmediernas genomtränglighet för ultravioletta Strålar (121–154)
Lyder BorthenEn begrænset orbital-absces som complication af influenza (155–161)
Litteraturudtog(161–185)
Vol. IV, 1
Gordon NorrieKataraktdepressionen i Skandinavien i sidste halvdel af 18de århundrede (1–28)
C.M. HansenKasuistiske meddelelser (iritis) (29–30)
Joh. WidmarkOm aftagandet af ophthalmia neonatorum i Stockholm under åren 1884–1890 (31–32)
Litteraturudtog(33–64)
Vol. IV, 2
J. WidmarkYtteerligare några iaktagelser om ögonsymptom vid perifera trigeminusaffektioner (65–78)
F. VelanderEjendomlig ögonskada (79)
J. BjerrumKliniske iagttagelser. I. Et tilfælde af irido-chorioriditis chron. Recidivans (80–92)
Litteraturudtog(98–128)
Vol. IV, 3
Lyder BorthenDe topisk-diagnostiske forhold ved ensidig reflektorisk pupille ubevægelighed (Pupillen-starre) (129–141)
A. GullstrandEtt fall af keratoconus med tydlig pulsation af hornhinnan (142–169)
J. BjerrumKliniske iagttagelser. II. Et tilfælde af embol. a centr. ret. med et ejendommeligt kredsløbsfænomen (170–178)
Litteraturudtog(183–190)
Vol. V, 1
Ejgil SchmidtEn Fremstilling af Theorien for centrerede optiske Systemer (1–17)
A. GullstrandEt fall af Lenticonus posterior (18–26)
C.M. HansenFremmed legeme i forreste øjekammer (27)
Litteraturudtog(28–52)
Vol. V, 2
Joh. WidmarkOm bländing af näthinnan (57–70)
J. BjerrumOm glaukomets kliniske afgrænsning (71–96)
Litteraturudtog(97–128)
Vol. V, 3
J. BjerrumOm glaukomets kliniske afgrænsning (129–138)
Lyder BorthenTre og tyve tilfælde af bulbære melanotiske svulster (139–182)
Litteraturudtog(183–194)

Of a total number of 45 scientific works, 20 were authored by the two editors (Bjerrum 11, Widmark 9). The promoter, Dr. Grut, contributed two pieces of work as well as Schiøtz also wrote just a single piece (printed across two numbers). Finland (G. Nordman) did not contribute any scientific works at all.

The literature extracts took up more than three hundred pages, being in the nature of reviews in the Nordic languages (signed B or W and later, in several cases, Gullstrand) of international publications, particularly German.

Thus, the picture is of a situation where Grut had gathered a group of colleagues around him and decided to publish a Nordic journal. Broad medical backing is something the journal never achieved. To what extent Grut was personally responsible for the journal’s funding is uncertain. It is known, however, that Grut was out of a very wealthy family (Norrie 1925).

The modesty of the contributions from Grut and Schiøtz was doubtlessly a result of the scientific strife that started between them.

The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The journal truly had a bad start. It could sound like a very sad story: A new journal stopped after only 3 years after two of the editors had engaged in dispute. The journal suffered this ‘serious blow’ (Johansen 1978) already the first year (volume I, 3, page 289). Here, Grut expressed his discontent in a comment on Schiøtz’s article ‘A contribution to the knowledge of the muscular conditions of the eyes’. The dispute was concerned with whether convergent strabismus was caused by a muscular or a nervous imbalance. Bjerrum, who was the editor and an assistant to Grut at the same time, tried to avert Schiøtz’s anger by sending a letter already before the criticism was printed. In that letter, he explained that Grut was dissatisfied because Schiøtz had not quoted his article on latent strabismus from the 1884 congress in Copenhagen. Grut’s comment was sarcastic in its form, reading as follows: ‘I am sorry to note that Dr. S. does not seem to have known my dissertation since he does not mention it at all. It seems to me that Dr. S. has also again adhered to the doctrinarian view on the symptom, whereby the treatment of the affected patient may suffer. I reserve my position and may, on a later occasion, revert to this important question’ (Johansen 1978). Norrie (1925) writes about Grut’s criticism: ‘This piece raised quite a stir, but what happened between the two physicians, I do not know. I can only say as much as neither Schiøtz nor Grut ever wrote anything else in the journal. Grut was not inclined to tolerate other opinions than his own. That the two publishers evidently would not co-operate may be a reason that the journal’s life never extended beyond a few years.

Before the consequences of this strife are assessed and a highly significant result of the publications is highlighted, it may be worth the while to look a bit at the contents of the five volumes, each published with three numbers, the very first as a double number.

Of the total number of 45 articles printed by the journal, 31 may be characterised as clinical-ophthalmological, often describing single cases, but also comprising reflections (the dispute between Grut and Schiøtz over eye muscles and strabismus). In perfect keeping with the spirit of the time, there are a number of works with physiological–optical content. The authors are names as well known as Gullstrand (the Nobel Prize 1911), Tscherning (myopia, accommodation, spectacle lens optics) and Bjerrum (glaucoma scotomata).

Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The most productive contributor to the ‘Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift’ was Jannik Petersen Bjerrum (1851–1920), today known for the demonstration of the arcuate scotoma in glaucoma. It is referred to internationally as ‘Bjerrum’s scotoma’, even though many foreigners find the pronunciation of the name difficult.

In 1876, Bjerrum was appointed assistant to Professor Edmund Hansen Grut, whom he succeeded in 1896. He was professor at the University of Copenhagen until 1910 and died on 2 July 1920.

The first communication on arcuate scotomata was published in ‘Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift’ Vol. 2, pp. 141–185 (1889) under the title: ‘On an addition to the customary vision field examination and on the field of vision in glaucoma’. In this work, Bjerrum described the arcuate scotoma, which he had frequently observed when examining the field of vision (Fig. 2).

image

Figure 2.  Illustration from Bjerrum (1889).

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Bjerrum showed a number of cases of arcuate scotomata, which were demonstrated with small objects.

The arcuate scotoma, which extends upwards and downwards from the blind spot in arcs around the macula, will naturally cause the physician to suspect damage to the nerve fibres in the excavated papilla. Already Bjerrum was aware that the defects could start at a supero-temporal point relative to the blind spot and it still seems difficult to give a definitive explanation of why the upper and lower nerve fibres should be more vulnerable than the fibres in other areas of the excavation (Ehlers 1966). Rønne’s later description of the horizontal nasal stepwise limitation of the upper and lower sickle-shaped scotoma underpins the belief that the lesion is caused by damage to nervous fibres.

Bjerrum, who had grown up in the border region near the Danish–German border was near bilingual, and several of his later works were published in German journals. For that reason, he is frequently believed to be German. When his findings were soon known in the English-speaking world as well it was because his superior, Professor Grut, was married to an English woman. A young English ophthalmologist visited the clinic in Copenhagen and passed on the perimetry technique to Edinburgh, for instance, where it was adopted by Traquair, the author of one of the classic books on perimetry.

Bjerrum’s perimetry technique

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

Bjerrum’s perimeter was a large black fabric curtain, 2 × 2 m, and a set of small white objects made from ivory. This description is from the first publication in 1889. The assistants at the clinic revealed, however, that Bjerrum himself used a double door that was common in many older houses in Copenhagen and according to the fashion of that time painted dark brown. When closed, such a double door constitutes a uniform dark surface of about 2 × 2 m. With this door as the background and small pieces of white paper, Bjerrum discovered and explored the arcuate scotoma. Nothing else was necessary for someone in the possession of scientific talent.

Publishing stopped

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The journal Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift was published for the last time in 1890. Volume V, number 3 ended abruptly. There was no postscript; it was as if the journal ‘vanished in thin air’.

It can seem surprising that the co-publishers and editors, who must have devoted substantial efforts to the publication, did not find any reason to issue any comments. Could it be because it was rather a collapse that everyone ought to keep silent about. Was it caused by animosity?

The analysis of the contents of the journal given in Table 1 shows clearly that those who had written the articles were a small group of ophthalmologists with university affiliation. Were they disappointed with the lack of contributions from their colleagues, who had been encouraged in the introduction to Volume I to write pieces about their professional experience. We do not know.

We do not know anything at all about the funding of the journal. Grut figured as the publisher and the journal was ‘on consignment’ with a bookshop. This suggests an arrangement that, today, we would call ‘self-publishing’. No accounts or annual reports have been found. Had the publishers themselves paid for it and was the publication in reality a professorial showcase? Finally, it may be considered whether disagreements had arisen between the persons involved. We know about the strife between Grut and Schiøtz, but perhaps it was not the only one? It would be thought provoking that the Finnish publisher wrote nothing at all for the journal.

Historically, there has always been a hate/love relationship between the realms of the Nordic region. Perhaps this peculiarity also surfaced in the publishing of the Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift.

Acta Ophthalmologica founded

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References

The idea of a new Nordic ophthalmology journal emerged again about 30 years after Nordisk Ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift had been discontinued. Also this time, the initiative was taken in Denmark, now by professor in Copenhagen, Dr. K.K.K. Lundsgaard. At the meeting of the Society of Ophtalmology in Kristiania in 1919, the consensus was that the N.O.L.R. (Nordic Ophthalmology Literature Ring) was sufficient, but in 1921, in Stockholm, it was decided to found a new journal.

The matter was resumed again in 1922, now by Prof. Sigurd Hagen, Oslo. The Ophthalmology Association of Kristiania would support attempts to start up an ophthamology journal in Scandinavia by collecting contributions once and for all from Norwegian ophthalmologists. Contributions should be from 300 to 500 kroner, and the money was indeed collected (Johansen 1978).

The title became Acta Ophthalmologica as the Greek term ophthalmos was preferred to the Latin one, oculus. Acta was to be owned by the Nordic Ophtalmological Central Committee.

The following preface was printed on the first page of volume I:

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, which makes its first appearance today, is the result of co-operation between the Ophthalmic Surgeons of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We are allied by Language, by racial characteristics, and by a similar Medical Education.

For many years we have held Meetings together, and at the last, which took place at Stockholm in 1921, we decided to cement our mutual friendship by founding a joint Review.

About 34 years ago the Ophthalmic Surgeons of the four countries issued a Review ‘Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift’. It was written in our own languages, and in consequence we could not expect that it would be widely read. It lasted for 3 years only.

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA will print original articles written by surgeons in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It will also report on Ophthalmic meetings, and review the Ophthalmic Literature of the four countries.

Whereas the articles will be printed in English, French or German, according to the choice of their authors, we hope that our Journal will obtain an extensive circulation and that our work will become known not only to colleagues at home, but also widely throughout the world.

Editors were Fritz Ask (Lund), Emil Enroth (Helsinki), V. Grönholm (Helsinki), Sigurd Hagen (Kristiania), K.K.K. Lundsgaard (Copenhagen), J.W. Nordenson (Upsala), Henning Rønne (Copenhagen) and Ingolf Schiøtz (Kristiania).

Acta Ophthalmologica has experienced stormy years but made substantial headway when a common subscription plan was introduced for all Nordic ophthalmologists who were members of the individual countries’ respective scientific societies.

As a last offshoot, Acta is from 2000 ‘The Official Journal of the Nordic Ophthalmological Societies’ and from 2006 of the European Association for Vision and Eye Research.

Acta Ophthalmologica’s recent history is in such fresh memory to many that it would be premature to carry through a historical analysis and even more so as the writer of this article has known many of the involved combatants personally.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract.
  3. Background
  4. Publishers
  5. The dream
  6. First publication in 1889
  7. Contents of the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology
  8. The controversy between Grut and Schiøtz
  9. Bjerrum’s arcuate scotoma
  10. Bjerrum’s perimetry technique
  11. Publishing stopped
  12. Acta Ophthalmologica founded
  13. References
  • Ehlers H (1966): The history of the arcuate Bjerrum scotoma. In: de Andrade AL. Festschrift. Lisboa: 139145.
  • Johansen O (1978): Øyelegekunstens historie i Norge. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Norrie G (1925): Den danske Oftalmologis Historie indtil Aar 1900. Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard.
  • Schauenburg CH (1856) Ophthalmologi. Copenhagen: Th. Gandrup. Preface by M Saxtorph, Deputy Surgeon, Reader at the University of Copenhagen.