• blue-on-yellow perimetry;
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • VEP;
  • visual field;
  • white-on-white perimetry


Purpose:  To evaluate the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on retina and optic nerve.

Methods:  Thirty-eight patients with COPD and 29 healthy controls, totally 67 subjects, were included in the study. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and visual field assessment (both standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP)) were performed on each subject after ophthalmological, neurological and pulmonary examinations.

Results:  Mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were significantly different between patient and control groups as for both SAP and SWAP measurements (p = 0.001, 0.019, 0.009 and p = 0.004,0.019, 0.031, respectively). Short-term fluctuation (SF) was not statistically different between the study and the control groups (p = 0.874 and 0.694, respectively). VEP P100 latencies were significantly different between patients with COPD and the controls (p = 0.019).

Conclusion:  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a systemic disease, and hypoxia in COPD seems to affect the retina and the optic nerve.