• 1
    Fang J, Alderman MH. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971–1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2000;283:24042410.
  • 2
    Niskanen LK, Laaksonen DE, Nyyssonen K, Alfthan G, Lakka HM, Lakka TA, Balonen JT. Uric acid level as a risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in middle-aged men: A prospective cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:15461551.
  • 3
    Baker JF, Krishnan E, Chen L, Schumacher HR. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: Recent developments, and where do they leave us? Am J Med 2005;118:816826.
  • 4
    Culleton BF, Larson MG, Kannel WB, Levy D. Serum uric acid and risk for cardiovascular disease and death. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:713.
  • 5
    George J, Struthers AD. The role of urate and xanthine oxidase inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2008;26:5964.
  • 6
    Farquharson CA, Butler R, Hill A, Belch JJ, Struthers AD. Allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure. Circulation 2002;106:221226.
  • 7
    George J, Carr E, Davies J, Belch JJF, Struthers A. High dose allopurinol improves endothelial function by profoundly reducing vascular oxidative stress and not by lowering uric acid. Circulation 2006;114:25082516.
  • 8
    Dennis MS BJ, Sandercock PA, Bamford JM, Wade DT, Warlow CP. Long-term survival after first-ever stroke: The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Stroke 1993;24:796800.
  • 9
    Chen CH, Nevo E, Fetics B, Pak PH, Yin FC, Maughan WL, Kass DA. Estimation of central aortic pressure waveform by mathematical transformation of radial tonometry pressure. Validation of generalized transfer function. Circulation 1997;95:18271836.
  • 10
    Weber T, Auer J, O'Rourke MF, Kvas E, Lassnig E, Berent R, Eber B. Arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and the risk of coronary artery disease. Circulation 2004;109:184189.
  • 11
    Wilkinson IB, MacCallum H, Flint L, Cockcroft JR, Newby DE, Webb DJ. The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans. J Physiol 2000; 525 (Pt 1):263270.
  • 12
    Wykretowicz A, Guzik P, Kasinowski R, Krauze T, Bartkowiak G, Dziarmaga M, Wysocki H. Augmentation index, pulse pressure amplification and superoxide anion production in patients with coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol 2005;99:289294.
  • 13
    McLeod AL, Uren NG, Wilkinson IB, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR, Northridge DB, Newby DE. Non-invasive measures of pulse wave velocity correlate with coronary arterial plaque load in humans. J Hypertens 2004;22:363368.
  • 14
    Boutouyrie P, Tropeano AI, Asmar R, Gautier I, Benetos A, Lacolley P, Laurent S. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: A longitudinal study. Hypertension 2002;39:1015.
  • 15
    Gatzka CD, Cameron JD, Kingwell BA, Dart AM. Relation between coronary artery disease, aortic stiffness, and left ventricular structure in a population sample. Hypertension 1998;32:575578.
  • 16
    Blacher J, Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Safar ME, London GM. Carotid arterial stiffness as a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 1998;32:570574.
  • 17
    Mallareddy M, Parikh CR, Peixoto AJ. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on arterial stiffness in hypertension: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2006;8:398403.
  • 18
    Hozawa A, Folsom AR, Ibrahim H, Nieto JF, Rosamond WD, Shahar E. Serum uric acid and risk of ischemic stroke: The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis 2006;187:401407.
  • 19
    Milionis HJ, Kalantzi KJ, Goudevenos JA, Seferiadis K, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf MS. Serum uric acid levels and risk for acute ischaemic non-embolic stroke in elderly subjects. J Intern Med 2005;258:435441.
  • 20
    Wong KY, MacWalter RS, Fraser HW, Crombie I, Ogston SA, Struthers AD. Urate predicts subsequent cardiac death in stroke survivors. Eur Heart J 2002;23:788793.
  • 21
    Weir CJ, Muir SW, Walters MR, Lees KR. Serum urate as an independent predictor of poor outcome and future vascular events after acute stroke. Stroke 2003;34:19511956.
  • 22
    Mercuro G, Vitale C, Cerquetani E, Zoncu S, Deidda M, Fini M, Rosano GM. Effect of hyperuricemia upon endothelial function in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Am J Cardiol 2004;94:932935.
  • 23
    Baldus S, Koster R, Chumley P, Heitzer T, Rudolph V, Ostad MA, Wammoltz A, Staude HJ, Thuneke K, Koss K, et al. Oxypurinol improves coronary and peripheral endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Free Radic Biol Med 2005;39:11841190.
  • 24
    Butler R, Morris AD, Belch JJ, Hill A, Struthers AD. Allopurinol normalizes endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetics with mild hypertension. Hypertension 2000;35:746751.
  • 25
    Waring WS, McKnight JA, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR. Uric acid restores endothelial function in patients with type 1 diabetes and regular smokers. Diabetes 2006;55:31273123.
  • 26
    Kanbay M, Ozkara A, Selcoki Y, Isik B, Turgut F, Bavbek N, Uz E, Akcay A, Yigitoglu R, Covic A. Effect of treatment of hyperuricemia with allopurinol on blood pressure, creatinine clearence, and proteinuria in patients with normal renal functions. Int Urol Nephrol 2007;39:12271233.
  • 27
    Kullo IJ, Seward JB, Bailey KR, Bielak LF, Grossardt BR, Sheedy PF, Peysor P, Turner S. C-reactive protein is related to arterial wave reflection and stiffness in asymptomatic subjects from the community. Am J Hypertens 2005;18:11231129.
  • 28
    Kielstein JT, Donnerstag F, Gasper S, Menne J, Kielstein A, Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Scalera F, Cooke JP, Fliser D, Bode-Böger SM. ADMA increases arterial stiffness and decreases cerebral blood flow in humans. Stroke 2006;37:20242029.
  • 29
    London GM, Blacher J, Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Safar ME. Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure. Hypertension 2001;38:434438.
  • 30
    Coviv A, Haydar AA, Bhamra Ariza P, Taomir-Gusbeth P, Goldsmith DJ. Aortic pulse wave velocity and arterial wave reflection predict the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in chronic kidney disease patients. J Nephrol 2005;18(4):388396.