SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Diczfalusy E. The demographic revolution and our common future. Maturitas 2001;38:514; discussion 14–15.
  • 2
    Gutheil IA. Introduction: The many faces of aging: Challenges for the future. Gerontologist 1996;36:1314.
  • 3
    Fried TR, Bradley EH, Williams CS, Tinetti ME. Functional disability and health care expenditures for older persons. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:26022607.
  • 4
    Tracy RP, Bovill EG. Thrombosis and cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1992;116:13071312.
  • 5
    Wilkerson WR, Sane DC. Aging and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost 2002;28:555568.
  • 6
    Kiechl S, Willeit J; Bruneck Study Group. The natural course of atherosclerosis. Part II: Vascular remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:14911498.
  • 7
    Davies MJ, Thomas A. Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death. N Engl J Med 1984;310:11371140.
  • 8
    DeWood MA, Spores J, Notske R, et al. Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1980;303:897902.
  • 9
    Gleerup G, Winther K. The effect of ageing on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity. Angiology 1995;46:715718.
  • 10
    Abbate R, Prisco D, Rostagno C, Boddi M, Gensini GF. Age-related changes in the hemostatic system. Int J Clin Lab Res 1993;23:13.
  • 11
    Meade TW, Chakrabarti R, Haines AP, North WR, Stirling Y. Characteristics affecting fibrinolytic activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Br Med J 1979;1:153156.
  • 12
    Loskutoff DJ, Sawdey M, Mimuro J. Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor. Prog Hemost Thromb 1989;9:87115.
  • 13
    Tofler GH, Massaro J, Levy D, et al. Relation of the prothrombotic state to increasing age (from the Framingham Offspring Study). Am J Cardiol 2005;96:12801283.
  • 14
    Dolan G, Neal K, Cooper P, Brown P, Preston FE. Protein C, antithrombin III and plasminogen: Effect of age, sex and blood group. Br J Haematol 1994;86:798803.
  • 15
    Zorio E, Gilabert-Estelles J, Espana F, Ramon LA, Cosin R, Estelles A. Fibrinolysis: The key to new pathogenetic mechanisms. Curr Med Chem 2008;15:923929.
  • 16
    Yamamoto K, Takeshita K, Kojima T, Takamatsu J, Saito H. Aging and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulation: Implication in the pathogenesis of thrombotic disorders in the elderly. Cardiovasc Res 2005;66:276285.
  • 17
    Kruithof EK. Regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene expression by inflammatory mediators and statins. Thromb Haemost 2008;100:969975.
  • 18
    Fay WP, Garg N, Sunkar M. Vascular functions of the plasminogen activation system. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007;27:12311237.
  • 19
    Zhang L, Seiffert D, Fowler BJ, et al. Plasminogen has a broad extrahepatic distribution. Thromb Haemost 2002;87:493501.
  • 20
    Loskutoff DJ, Van Mourik JA, Erickson LA, Lawrence D. Detection of an unusually stable fibrinolytic inhibitor produced by bovine endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1983;80:29562960.
  • 21
    Kruithof EK, Baker MS, Bunn CL. Biological and clinical aspects of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2. Blood 1995;86:40074024.
  • 22
    Kruithof EK, Vassalli JD, Schleuning WD, Mattaliano RJ, Bachmann F. Purification and characterization of a plasminogen activator inhibitor from the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937. J Biol Chem 1986;261:1120711213.
  • 23
    Heeb MJ, Espana F, Geiger M, Collen D, Stump DC, Griffin JH. Immunological identity of heparin-dependent plasma and urinary protein C inhibitor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-3. J Biol Chem 1987;262:1581315816.
  • 24
    Espana F, Berrettini M, Griffin JH. Purification and characterization of plasma protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res 1989;55:369384.
  • 25
    Blasi F, Carmeliet P. uPAR: A versatile signalling orchestrator. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2002;3:932943.
  • 26
    Kolev K, Machovich R. Molecular and cellular modulation of fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost 2003;89:610621.
  • 27
    Loskutoff DJ, Samad F. The adipocyte and hemostatic balance in obesity: Studies of PAI-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:16.
  • 28
    Kohler HP, Grant PJ. Plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2000;342:17921801.
  • 29
    Weisberg AD, Albornoz F, Griffin JP, et al. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 attenuates angiotensin II/salt-induced aortic remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:365371.
  • 30
    Aso Y. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in vascular inflammation and thrombosis. Front Biosci 2007;12:29572966.
  • 31
    Durand MK, Bodker JS, Christensen A, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-I and tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis. Thromb Haemost 2004;91:438449.
  • 32
    Rossignol P, Luttun A, Martin-Ventura JL, et al. Plasminogen activation: A mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques. J Thromb Haemost 2006;4:664670.
  • 33
    Chen Y, Budd RC, Kelm RJJ, Sobel BE, Schneider DJ. Augmentation of proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006;26:17771783.
  • 34
    Chen Y, Kelm RJJ, Budd RC, Sobel BE, Schneider DJ. Inhibition of apoptosis and caspase-3 in vascular smooth muscle cells by plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1. J Cell Biochem 2004;92:178188.
  • 35
    Saksela O, Rifkin DB. Cell-associated plasminogen activation: Regulation and physiological functions. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1988;4:93126.
  • 36
    Healy AM, Gelehrter TD. Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in HepG2 human hepatoma cells by mediators of the acute phase response. J Biol Chem 1994;269:1909519100.
  • 37
    Koike C, Hayakawa Y, Niiya K, Sakuragawa N, Sasaki H. The production of heparin cofactor II is not regulated by inflammatory cytokines in human hepatoma cells: Comparison with plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1. Thromb Haemost 1996;75:298302.
  • 38
    Seki T, Gelehrter TD. Interleukin-1 induction of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene expression in the mouse hepatocyte line. AML 12. J Cell Physiol 1996;168:648656.
  • 39
    Raji MA, Al Snih S, Ray LA, Patel KV, Markides KS. Cognitive status and incident disability in older Mexican Americans: Findings from the Hispanic established population for the epidemiological study of the elderly. Ethn Dis 2004;14:2631.
  • 40
    Lutsey PL, Cushman M, Steffen LM, et al. Plasma hemostatic factors and endothelial markers in four racial/ethnic groups: The MESA study. J Thromb Haemost 2006;4:26292635.
  • 41
    Krishnamurti C, Tang DB, Barr CF, Alving BM. Plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor activities in a reference population. Am J Clin Pathol 1988;89:747752.
  • 42
    Angleton P, Chandler WL, Schmer G. Diurnal variation of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its rapid inhibitor (PAI-1). Circulation 1989;79:101106.
  • 43
    Morange PE, Alessi MC, Verdier M, Casanova D, Magalon G, Juhan-Vague I. PAI-1 produced ex vivo by human adipose tissue is relevant to PAI-1 blood level. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:13611365.
  • 44
    Andreotti F, Davies GJ, Hackett DR, et al. Major circadian fluctuations in fibrinolytic factors and possible relevance to time of onset of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:635637.
  • 45
    Mansfield MW, Stickland MH, Grant PJ. Environmental and genetic factors in relation to elevated circulating levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in Caucasian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Thromb Haemost 1995;74:842847.
  • 46
    Dawson SJ, Wiman B, Hamsten A, Green F, Humphries S, Henney AM. The two allele sequences of a common polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene respond differently to interleukin-1 in HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem 1993;268:1073910745.
  • 47
    Eriksson P, Kallin B, Van‘t Hooft FM, Bavenholm P, Hamsten A. Allele-specific increase in basal transcription of the plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 gene is associated with myocardial infarction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:18511855.
  • 48
    Mannucci PM, Mari D, Merati G, et al. Gene polymorphisms predicting high plasma levels of coagulation and fibrinolysis proteins. A study in centenarians. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:755759.
  • 49
    Rizzo MR, Ragno E, Barbieri M, et al. Elevated plasma activator inhibitor 1 is not related to insulin resistance and to gene polymorphism in healthy centenarians. Atherosclerosis 2002;160:385390.
  • 50
    Bladbjerg EM, Andersen-Ranberg K, De Maat MP, et al. Longevity is independent of common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk. Thromb Haemost 1999;82:11001105.
  • 51
    Barbieri M, Rizzo MR, Ragno E, et al. Insulin resistance, plasma PAI-1 levels and PAI-1 gene polymorphism in healthy centenarians. J Endocrinol Invest 2002;25:110112.
  • 52
    Verschuur M, Jellema A, Bladbjerg EM, et al. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter haplotype is related to PAI-1 plasma concentrations in lean individuals. Atherosclerosis 2005;181:275284.
  • 53
    Bouchard L, Mauriege P, Vohl MC, Bouchard C, Perusse L. Plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms are associated with obesity and fat distribution in the Quebec Family Study: Evidence of interactions with menopause. Menopause 2005;12:136143.
  • 54
    Testa R, Bonfigli AR, Salvioli S, et al. The Pro/Pro genotype of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism modulates PAI-1 plasma levels in ageing. Mech Ageing Dev 2009;130:497500.
  • 55
    Bastard JP, Pieroni L, Hainque B. Relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and insulin resistance. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000;16:192201.
  • 56
    Meigs JB, Mittleman MA, Nathan DM, et al. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and impaired hemostasis: The Framingham Offspring Study. JAMA 2000;283:221228.
  • 57
    Landin K, Stigendal L, Eriksson E, et al. Abdominal obesity is associated with an impaired fibrinolytic activity and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Metabolism 1990;39:10441048.
  • 58
    Mehta J, Mehta P, Lawson D, Saldeen T. Plasma tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor levels in coronary artery disease: Correlation with age and serum triglyceride concentrations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;9:263268.
  • 59
    Asplund-Carlson A, Hamsten A, Wiman B, Carlson LA. Relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and VLDL triglyceride concentration, insulin levels and insulin sensitivity: Studies in randomly selected normo- and hypertriglyceridaemic men. Diabetologia 1993;36:817825.
  • 60
    Festa A, D’Agostino RJ, Mykkanen L, Tracy R, Howard BV, Haffner SM. Low-density lipoprotein particle size is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:605610.
  • 61
    Mari D, Coppola R, Provenzano R. Hemostasis factors and aging. Exp Gerontol 2008;43:66–73.
  • 62
    Paolisso G, Tagliamonte MR, Rizzo MR, Giugliano D. Advancing age and insulin resistance: New facts about an ancient history. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:758769.
  • 63
    Byberg L, Siegbahn A, Berglund L, McKeigue P, Reneland R, Lithell H. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity is independently related to both insulin sensitivity and serum triglycerides in 70-year-old men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:258264.
  • 64
    Javorschi S, Richard-Harston S, Labrouche S, Manciet G, Freyburger G. Relative influence of age and thrombotic history on hemostatic parameters. Thromb Res 1998;91:241248.
  • 65
    Sawdey MS, Loskutoff DJ. Regulation of murine type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene expression in vivo. Tissue specificity and induction by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta. J Clin Invest 1991;88:13461353.
  • 66
    Schleef RR, Bevilacqua MP, Sawdey M, Gimbrone MAJ, Loskutoff DJ. Cytokine activation of vascular endothelium. Effects on tissue-type plasminogen activator and type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor. J Biol Chem 1988;263:57975803.
  • 67
    Konkle BA, Schuster SJ, Kelly MD, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 messenger RNA expression is induced in rat hepatocytes in vivo by dexamethasone. Blood 1992;79:26362642.
  • 68
    Samad F, Loskutoff DJ. Tissue distribution and regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese mice. Mol Med 1996;2:568582.
  • 69
    Larsson PT, Wiman B, Olsson G, Angelin B, Hjemdahl P. Influence of metoprolol treatment on sympatho-adrenal activation of fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost 1990;63:482487.
  • 70
    Vaughan DE, Lazos SA, Tong K. Angiotensin II regulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured endothelial cells. A potential link between the renin-angiotensin system and thrombosis. J Clin Invest 1995;95:9951001.
  • 71
    Yamamoto K, Loskutoff DJ. Fibrin deposition in tissues from endotoxin-treated mice correlates with decreases in the expression of urokinase-type but not tissue-type plasminogen activator. J Clin Invest 1996;97:24402451.
  • 72
    Suffredini AF, Harpel PC, Parrillo JE. Promotion and subsequent inhibition of plasminogen activation after administration of intravenous endotoxin to normal subjects. N Engl J Med 1989;320:11651172.
  • 73
    Yamamoto K, Takeshita K, Shimokawa T, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a major stress-regulated gene: Implications for stress-induced thrombosis in aged individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:890895.
  • 74
    Jern C, Eriksson E, Tengborn L, Risberg B, Wadenvik H, Jern S. Changes of plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis in response to mental stress. Thromb Haemost 1989;62:767771.
  • 75
    Takada Y, Urano T, Takahashi H, Nagai N, Takada A. Effects of electric footshock and water immersion restraint stresses on fibrinolytic parameters in the plasma of rats. Thromb Res 1998;89:107114.
  • 76
    Selye H. The general adaptation syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1946;6:117231.
  • 77
    Wojta J, Holzer M, Hufnagl P, Christ G, Hoover RL, Binder BR. Hyperthermia stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Am J Pathol 1991;139:911919.
  • 78
    Pinsky DJ, Liao H, Lawson CA, et al. Coordinated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and inhibition of plasminogen activator gene expression by hypoxia promotes pulmonary vascular fibrin deposition. J Clin Invest 1998;102:919928.
  • 79
    Uchida Y, Ohba K, Yoshioka T, Irie K, Muraki T, Maru Y. Cellular carbonyl stress enhances the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in rat white adipocytes via reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem 2004;279:40754083.
  • 80
    Vulin AI, Stanley FM. Oxidative stress activates the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter through an AP-1 response element and cooperates with insulin for additive effects on PAI-1 transcription. J Biol Chem 2004;279:2517225178.
  • 81
    Raikkonen K, Lassila R, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Hautanen A. Association of chronic stress with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in healthy middle-aged men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16:363367.
  • 82
    Otowa K, Takamura M, Murai H, et al. Altered interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 activity and sympathetic nerve activity with aging. Circ J 2008;72:458462.
  • 83
    Shimomura I, Funahashi T, Takahashi M, et al. Enhanced expression of PAI-1 in visceral fat: Possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity. Nat Med 1996;2:800803.
  • 84
    Glavin GB, Pare WP, Sandbak T, Bakke HK, Murison R. Restraint stress in biomedical research: An update. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1994;18:223249.
  • 85
    Yamamoto K, Kojima T, Adachi T, et al. Obesity enhances the induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by restraint stress: A possible mechanism of stress-induced renal fibrin deposition in obese mice. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:14951502.
  • 86
    Ho CH. The influence of age and smoking on hemostatic parameters in the Chinese people. Thromb Res 1995;78:495503.
  • 87
    Villareal DT, Apovian CM, Kushner RF, Klein S. Obesity in older adults: Technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. Obes Res 2005;13:18491863.
  • 88
    Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Fantin F, Rossi A, Di Francesco V. Sarcopenic obesity: A new category of obesity in the elderly. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:388395.
  • 89
    Beaufrere B, Morio B. Fat and protein redistribution with aging: Metabolic considerations. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(Suppl 3):S48S53.
  • 90
    Arterburn DE, Crane PK, Sullivan SD. The coming epidemic of obesity in elderly Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:19071912.
  • 91
    Janand-Delenne B, Chagnaud C, Raccah D, Alessi MC, Juhan-Vague I, Vague P. Visceral fat as a main determinant of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 level in women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:312317.
  • 92
    Giltay EJ, Elbers JM, Gooren LJ, et al. Visceral fat accumulation is an important determinant of PAI-1 levels in young, nonobese men and women: Modulation by cross-sex hormone administration. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:17161722.
  • 93
    McGill JB, Schneider DJ, Arfken CL, Lucore CL, Sobel BE. Factors responsible for impaired fibrinolysis in obese subjects and NIDDM patients. Diabetes 1994;43:104109.
  • 94
    Potter van Loon BJ, Kluft C, Radder JK, Blankenstein MA, Meinders AE. The cardiovascular risk factor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is related to insulin resistance. Metabolism 1993;42:945949.
  • 95
    Juhan-Vague I, Vague P, Alessi MC, et al. Relationships between plasma insulin triglyceride, body mass index, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Diabete Metab 1987;13:331336.
  • 96
    Govindarajan G, Alpert MA, Tejwani L. Endocrine and metabolic effects of fat: Cardiovascular implications. Am J Med 2008;121:366370.
  • 97
    Alessi MC, Peiretti F, Morange P, Henry M, Nalbone G, Juhan-Vague I. Production of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 by human adipose tissue: Possible link between visceral fat accumulation and vascular disease. Diabetes 1997;46:860867.
  • 98
    Mavri A, Alessi MC, Bastelica D, et al. Subcutaneous abdominal, but not femoral fat expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to plasma PAI-1 levels and insulin resistance and decreases after weight loss. Diabetologia 2001;44:20252031.
  • 99
    Yudkin JS, Kumari M, Humphries SE, Mohamed-Ali V. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: Is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis 2000;148:209214.
  • 100
    Kern PA, Saghizadeh M, Ong JM, Bosch RJ, Deem R, Simsolo RB. The expression of tumor necrosis factor in human adipose tissue. Regulation by obesity, weight loss, and relationship to lipoprotein lipase. J Clin Invest 1995;95:21112119.
  • 101
    Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AWJ. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 2003;112:17961808.
  • 102
    Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. J Clin Invest 2007;117:175184.
  • 103
    Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CD, Emeis JJ, Coppack SW. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: Associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: A potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:972978.
  • 104
    Mohamed-Ali V, Goodrick S, Rawesh A, et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:41964200.
  • 105
    Fried SK, Bunkin DA, Greenberg AS. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: Depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:847850.
  • 106
    Tracy RP, Psaty BM, Macy E, et al. Lifetime smoking exposure affects the association of C-reactive protein with cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical disease in healthy elderly subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:21672176.
  • 107
    Pieper CF, Rao KM, Currie MS, Harris TB, Chen HJ. Age, functional status, and racial differences in plasma D-dimer levels in community-dwelling elderly persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M649M657.
  • 108
    Eriksson P, Reynisdottir S, Lonnqvist F, Stemme V, Hamsten A, Arner P. Adipose tissue secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in non-obese and obese individuals. Diabetologia 1998;41:6571.
  • 109
    Cigolini M, Tonoli M, Borgato L, et al. Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human adipose tissue: A role for TNF-alpha? Atherosclerosis 1999;143:8190.
  • 110
    Mertens I, Ballaux D, Funahashi T, et al. Inverse relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-I activity and adiponectin in overweight and obese women. Interrelationship with visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, HDL-chol and inflammation. Thromb Haemost 2005;94:11901195.
  • 111
    Gottschling-Zeller H, Birgel M, Rohrig K, Hauner H. Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta 1 on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion from subcutaneous and omental human fat cells in suspension culture. Metabolism 2000;49:666671.
  • 112
    Sam S, Haffner S, Davidson MH, et al. Relation of abdominal fat depots to systemic markers of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:932937.
  • 113
    Halleux CM, Declerck PJ, Tran SL, Detry R, Brichard SM. Hormonal control of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression and production in human adipose tissue: Stimulation by glucocorticoids and inhibition by catecholamines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:40974105.
  • 114
    Yudkin JS, Coppack SW, Bulmer K, Rawesh A, Mohamed-Ali V. Lack of evidence for secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Thromb Res 1999;96:19.
  • 115
    Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, et al. Molecular inflammation: Underpinnings of aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev 2009;8:1830.
  • 116
    Franceschi C, Bonafe M, Valensin S, et al. Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;908:244254.
  • 117
    Van Der Poll T, Levi M, Buller HR, et al. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects. J Exp Med 1991;174:729732.
  • 118
    Kruithof EK, Mestries JC, Gascon MP, Ythier A. The coagulation and fibrinolytic responses of baboons after in vivo thrombin generation–effect of interleukin 6. Thromb Haemost 1997;77:905910.
  • 119
    Samad F, Yamamoto K, Loskutoff DJ. Distribution and regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in murine adipose tissue in vivo. Induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Invest 1996;97:3746.
  • 120
    Samad F, Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Pandey M, Hotamisligil GS, Loskutoff DJ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a key component in the obesity-linked elevation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:69026907.
  • 121
    Hube F, Hauner H. The role of TNF-alpha in human adipose tissue: Prevention of weight gain at the expense of insulin resistance? Horm Metab Res 1999;31:626631.
  • 122
    Birgel M, Gottschling-Zeller H, Rohrig K, Hauner H. Role of cytokines in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in newly differentiated subcutaneous human adipocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:16821687.
  • 123
    Van Hinsbergh VW, Kooistra T, Van Den Berg EA, Princen HM, Fiers W, Emeis JJ. Tumor necrosis factor increases the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor in human endothelial cells in vitro and in rats in vivo. Blood 1988;72:14671473.
  • 124
    Papanicolaou DA, Wilder RL, Manolagas SC, Chrousos GP. The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:127137.
  • 125
    Heinrich PC, Castell JV, Andus T. Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response. Biochem J 1990;265:621636.
  • 126
    Bataille R, Klein B. C-reactive protein levels as a direct indicator of interleukin-6 levels in humans in vivo. Arthritis Rheum 1992;35:982984.
  • 127
    Mestries JC, Kruithof EK, Gascon MP, Herodin F, Agay D, Ythier A. In vivo modulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis by recombinant glycosylated human interleukin-6 in baboons. Eur Cytokine Netw 1994;5:275281.
  • 128
    Niessen RW, Lamping RJ, Jansen PM, et al. Antithrombin acts as a negative acute phase protein as established with studies on HepG2 cells and in baboons. Thromb Haemost 1997;78:10881092.
  • 129
    Burstein SA. Effects of interleukin 6 on megakaryocytes and on canine platelet function. Stem Cells 1994;12:386393.
  • 130
    Soslau G, Morgan DA, Jaffe JS, Brodsky I, Wang Y. Cytokine mRNA expression in human platelets and a megakaryocytic cell line and cytokine modulation of platelet function. Cytokine 1997;9:405411.
  • 131
    Rega G, Kaun C, Weiss TW, et al. Inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and oncostatin m induce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human adipose tissue. Circulation 2005;111:19381945.
  • 132
    Woodhouse PR, Meade TW, Khaw KT. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, the acute phase response and vitamin C. Atherosclerosis 1997;133:7176.
  • 133
    Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, Leeuwenburgh C, Pahor M. Oxidative damage and platelet activation as new predictors of mobility disability and mortality in elders. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006;8:609619.
  • 134
    Alessi MC, Bastelica D, Morange P, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue during morbid obesity. Diabetes 2000;49:13741380.
  • 135
    Morley JE, Baumgartner RN, Roubenoff R, Mayer J, Nair KS. Sarcopenia. J Lab Clin Med 2001;137:231243.
  • 136
    Stenholm S, Harris TB, Rantanen T, Visser M, Kritchevsky SB, Ferrucci L. Sarcopenic obesity: Definition, cause and consequences. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11:693700.
  • 137
    Ryall JG, Schertzer JD, Lynch GS. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and weakness. Biogerontology 2008;9:213228.
  • 138
    Newman AB, Kupelian V, Visser M, et al. Sarcopenia: Alternative definitions and associations with lower extremity function. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:16021609.
  • 139
    Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:10591064.
  • 140
    Pillen S, Arts IM, Zwarts MJ. Muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders. Muscle Nerve 2008;37:679693.
  • 141
    Schaap LA, Pluijm SM, Deeg DJ, Visser M. Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength. Am J Med 2006;119:526.e9526.e17.
  • 142
    Roth SM, Metter EJ, Ling S, Ferrucci L. Inflammatory factors in age-related muscle wasting. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2006;18:625630.
  • 143
    Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, Baumgartner RN, et al. Sarcopenia, obesity, and inflammation–results from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:428434.
  • 144
    Visser M, Pahor M, Taaffe DR, et al. Relationship of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women: The Health ABC Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57:M326M332.
  • 145
    Cesari M, Penninx BW, Pahor M, et al. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in older persons: The InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59:242248.
  • 146
    Huard J, Li Y, Fu FH. Muscle injuries and repair: Current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:822832.
  • 147
    Jarvinen TA, Jarvinen TL, Kaariainen M, Kalimo H, Jarvinen M. Muscle injuries: Biology and treatment. Am J Sports Med 2005;33:745764.
  • 148
    Zhu J, Li Y, Shen W, et al. Relationships between transforming growth factor-beta1, myostatin, and decorin: Implications for skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem 2007;282:2585225863.
  • 149
    Zhang LP, Takahara T, Yata Y, et al. Increased expression of plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor during liver fibrogenesis of rats: Role of stellate cells. J Hepatol 1999;31:703711.
  • 150
    Oikawa T, Freeman M, Lo W, Vaughan DE, Fogo A. Modulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vivo: A new mechanism for the anti-fibrotic effect of renin-angiotensin inhibition. Kidney Int 1997;51:164172.
  • 151
    Olman MA, Mackman N, Gladson CL, Moser KM, Loskutoff DJ. Changes in procoagulant and fibrinolytic gene expression during bleomycin-induced lung injury in the mouse. J Clin Invest 1995;96:16211630.
  • 152
    Takeshita K, Hayashi M, Iino S, et al. Increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction. Am J Pathol 2004;164:449456.
  • 153
    Naderi J, Bernreuther C, Grabinski N, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 up-regulation is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and associated fibrosis. Am J Pathol 2009;175:763771.
  • 154
    Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002;288:27092716.
  • 155
    Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24:683689.
  • 156
    McNeill AM, Katz R, Girman CJ, et al. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in older people: The cardiovascular health study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:13171324.
  • 157
    Alexander CM, Landsman PB, Teutsch SM, Haffner SM. NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older. Diabetes 2003;52:12101214.
  • 158
    Nieuwdorp M, Stroes ES, Meijers JC, Buller H. Hypercoagulability in the metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2005;5:155159.
  • 159
    Franchini M, Targher G, Montagnana M, Lippi G. The metabolic syndrome and the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Thromb Res 2008;122:727735.
  • 160
    Anand SS, Yi Q, Gerstein H, et al. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and fibrinolytic dysfunction to cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2003;108:420425.
  • 161
    Vague P, Juhan-Vague I, Aillaud MF, et al. Correlation between blood fibrinolytic activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor level, plasma insulin level, and relative body weight in normal and obese subjects. Metabolism 1986;35:250253.
  • 162
    Juhan-Vague I, Alessi MC, Mavri A, Morange PE. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance and vascular risk. J Thromb Haemost 2003;1:15751579.
  • 163
    Sola E, Vaya A, Espana F, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in severe and morbid obesity. Effect of weight loss and influence of 4G/5G polymorphism. Thromb Res 2008;122:320327.
  • 164
    Pellme F, Smith U, Funahashi T, et al. Circulating adiponectin levels are reduced in nonobese but insulin-resistant first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 2003;52:11821186.
  • 165
    Maruyoshi H, Kojima S, Funahashi T, et al. Adiponectin is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in patients with stable exertional angina. Thromb Haemost 2004;91:10261030.
  • 166
    You T, Nicklas BJ, Ding J, et al. The metabolic syndrome is associated with circulating adipokines in older adults across a wide range of adiposity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:414419.
  • 167
    Kressel G, Trunz B, Bub A, et al. Systemic and vascular markers of inflammation in relation to metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in adults with elevated atherosclerosis risk. Atherosclerosis 2009;202:263271.
  • 168
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: Insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:412419.
  • 169
    Juhan-Vague I, Alessi MC. PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 1997;78:656660.
  • 170
    Gabriely I, Yang XM, Cases JA, Ma XH, Rossetti L, Barzilai N. Hyperglycemia induces PAI-1 gene expression in adipose tissue by activation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Atherosclerosis 2002;160:115122.
  • 171
    Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997;349:14361442.
  • 172
    Bowness JM. Atherosclerosis and aging of the arterial wall. CMAJ 1992;147:201.
  • 173
    Masoro EJ. Physiological system markers of aging. Exp Gerontol 1988;23:391397.
  • 174
    Yildiz O. Vascular smooth muscle and endothelial functions in aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1100:353360.
  • 175
    Diebold I, Kraicun D, Bonello S, Gorlach A. The ‘PAI-1 paradox’ in vascular remodeling. Thromb Haemost 2008;100:984991.
  • 176
    Sawa H, Sobel BE, Fujii S. Potentiation by hypercholesterolemia of the induction of aortic intramural synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by endothelial injury. Circ Res 1993;73:671680.
  • 177
    Schafer K, Muller K, Hecke A, et al. Enhanced thrombosis in atherosclerosis-prone mice is associated with increased arterial expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:20972103.
  • 178
    Schneider DJ, Hayes M, Wadsworth M, et al. Attenuation of neointimal vascular smooth muscle cellularity in atheroma by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). J Histochem Cytochem 2004;52:10911099.
  • 179
    Sobel BE. Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and vasculopathy. A reconcilable paradox. Circulation 1999;99:24962498.
  • 180
    Juhan-Vague I, Moerman B, De Cock F, Aillaud MF, Collen D. Plasma levels of a specific inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (and urokinase) in normal and pathological conditions. Thromb Res 1984;33:523530.
  • 181
    Schneiderman J, Sawdey MS, Keeton MR, et al. Increased type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene expression in atherosclerotic human arteries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89:69987002.
  • 182
    Lupu F, Bergonzelli GE, Heim DA, et al. Localization and production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human healthy and atherosclerotic arteries. Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13:10901100.
  • 183
    Sobel BE, Woodcock-Mitchell J, Schneider DJ, Holt RE, Marutsuka K, Gold H. Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in coronary artery atherectomy specimens from type 2 diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients: A potential factor predisposing to thrombosis and its persistence. Circulation 1998;97:22132221.
  • 184
    Olofsson BO, Dahlen G, Nilsson TK. Evidence for increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator in plasma of patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 1989;10:7782.
  • 185
    Kwaan HC, Wang J, Svoboda K, Declerck PJ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 may promote tumour growth through inhibition of apoptosis. Br J Cancer 2000;82:17021708.
  • 186
    Gram J, Jespersen J, Kluft C, Rijken DC. On the usefulness of fibrinolysis variables in the characterization of a risk group for myocardial reinfarction. Acta Med Scand 1987;221:149153.
  • 187
    Hamsten A, Wiman B, De Faire U, Blomback M. Increased plasma levels of a rapid inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator in young survivors of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1985;313:15571563.
  • 188
    Meade TW, Ruddock V, Stirling Y, Chakrabarti R, Miller GJ. Fibrinolytic activity, clotting factors, and long-term incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the Northwick Park Heart Study. Lancet 1993;342:10761079.
  • 189
    Thompson SG, Kienast J, Pyke SD, Haverkate F, Van De Loo JC; European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group. Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. N Engl J Med 1995;332:635641.
  • 190
    Folsom AR, Aleksic N, Park E, Salomaa V, Juneja H, Wu KK. Prospective study of fibrinolytic factors and incident coronary heart disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:611617.
  • 191
    Juhan-Vague I, Pyke SD, Alessi MC, Jespersen J, Haverkate F, Thompson SG. Fibrinolytic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. ECAT Study Group. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities. Circulation 1996;94:20572063.
  • 192
    Folsom AR, Pankow JS, Williams RR, Evans GW, Province MA, Eckfeldt JH. Fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and carotid intima-media wall thickness in the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Thromb Haemost 1998;79:400404.
  • 193
    Eren M, Painter CA, Atkinson JB, Declerck PJ, Vaughan DE. Age-dependent spontaneous coronary arterial thrombosis in transgenic mice that express a stable form of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Circulation 2002;106:491496.
  • 194
    Westrick RJ, Eitzman DT. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vascular thrombosis. Curr Drug Targets 2007;8:9661002.
  • 195
    Guralnik JM, LaCroix AZ, Everett DF, Kovar MG. Aging in the Eighties: The prevalence of comorbidity and its association with disability. Advance data from vital and health statistics. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics, 1989.
  • 196
    Fried LP, Kronmal RA, Newman AB, et al. Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. JAMA 1998;279:585592.
  • 197
    Fried LP, Bandeen-Roche K, Kasper JD, Guralnik JM. Association of comorbidity with disability in older women: The Women's Health and Aging Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1999;52:2737.
  • 198
    Fried LP, Ferrucci L, Darer J, Williamson JD, Anderson G. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: Implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59:255263.
  • 199
    Yamamoto K, Saito H. A pathological role of increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human or animal disorders. Int J Hematol 1998;68:371385.
  • 200
    Tuttolomondo A, Pinto A, Corrao S, et al. Immuno-inflammatory and thrombotic/fibrinolytic variables associated with acute ischemic stroke diagnosis. Atherosclerosis 2009;203:503508.
  • 201
    Killewich LA, Gardner AW, Macko RF, et al. Progressive intermittent claudication is associated with impaired fibrinolysis. J Vasc Surg 1998;27:645650.
  • 202
    Juhan-Vague I, Valadier J, Alessi MC, et al. Deficient t-PA release and elevated PA inhibitor levels in patients with spontaneous or recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 1987;57:6772.
  • 203
    Segui R, Estelles A, Mira Y, et al. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G genotype as an additional risk factor for venous thrombosis in subjects with genetic thrombophilic defects. Br J Haematol 2000;111:122128.
  • 204
    Tabernero MD, Estelles A, Vicente V, Alberca I, Aznar J. Incidence of increased plasminogen activator inhibitor in patients with deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. Thromb Res 1989;56:565570.
  • 205
    Pralong G, Calandra T, Glauser MP, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: A new prognostic marker in septic shock. Thromb Haemost 1989;61:459462.
  • 206
    Keeton M, Ahn C, Eguchi Y, Burlingame R, Loskutoff DJ. Expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in renal tissue in murine lupus nephritis. Kidney Int 1995;47:148157.
  • 207
    Yamamoto K, Loskutoff DJ. The kidneys of mice with autoimmune disease acquire a hypofibrinolytic/procoagulant state that correlates with the development of glomerulonephritis and tissue microthrombosis. Am J Pathol 1997;151:725734.
  • 208
    Chomiki N, Henry M, Alessi MC, Anfosso F, Juhan-Vague I. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human liver and healthy or atherosclerotic vessel walls. Thromb Haemost 1994;72:4453.
  • 209
    Groeneveld AB, Kindt I, Raijmakers PG, Hack CE, Thijs LG. Systemic coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with or at risk for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Thromb Haemost 1997;78:14441449.
  • 210
    Wu KH, Tan AG, Rochtchina E, et al. Circulating inflammatory markers and hemostatic factors in age-related maculopathy: A population-based case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48:19831988.
  • 211
    Collet JP, Montalescot G, Vicaut E, et al. Acute release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction predicts mortality. Circulation 2003;108:391394.
  • 212
    Onalan O, Balta G, Oto A, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G4G genotype is associated with myocardial infarction but not with stable coronary artery disease. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2008;26:211217.
  • 213
    Henry M, Tregouet DA, Alessi MC, et al. Metabolic determinants are much more important than genetic polymorphisms in determining the PAI-1 activity and antigen plasma concentrations: A family study with part of the Stanislas Cohort. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:8491.
  • 214
    Pandolfi A, Cetrullo D, Polishuck R, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is increased in the arterial wall of type II diabetic subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:13781382.
  • 215
    Festa A, D’Agostino RJ, Tracy RP, Haffner SM. Elevated levels of acute-phase proteins and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predict the development of type 2 diabetes: The insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes 2002;51:11311137.
  • 216
    Festa A, Williams K, Tracy RP, Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM. Progression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen levels in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. Circulation 2006;113:17531759.
  • 217
    Hoekstra T, Geleijnse JM, Kluft C, Giltay EJ, Kok FJ, Schouten EG. 4G/4G genotype of PAI-1 gene is associated with reduced risk of stroke in elderly. Stroke 2003;34:28222828.
  • 218
    Chen ZL, Strickland S. Neuronal death in the hippocampus is promoted by plasmin-catalyzed degradation of laminin. Cell 1997;91:917925.
  • 219
    Dong J, Fujii S, Goto D, et al. Increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by mediators of the acute phase response: A potential progenitor of vasculopathy in hypertensives. Hypertens Res 2003;26:723729.
  • 220
    Grondahl-Hansen J, Christensen IJ, Briand P, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in cytosolic tumor extracts predicts prognosis in low-risk breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 1997;3:233239.
  • 221
    Stephens RW, Brunner N, Janicke F, Schmitt M. The urokinase plasminogen activator system as a target for prognostic studies in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1998;52:99111.
  • 222
    Foekens JA, Peters HA, Look MP, et al. The urokinase system of plasminogen activation and prognosis in 2780 breast cancer patients. Cancer Res 2000;60:636643.
  • 223
    Grondahl-Hansen J, Christensen IJ, Rosenquist C, et al. High levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its inhibitor PAI-1 in cytosolic extracts of breast carcinomas are associated with poor prognosis. Cancer Res 1993;53:25132521.
  • 224
    Grondahl-Hansen J, Hilsenbeck SG, Christensen IJ, Clark GM, Osborne CK, Brunner N. Prognostic significance of PAI-1 and uPA in cytosolic extracts obtained from node-positive breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1997;43:153163.
  • 225
    Pedersen H, Brunner N, Francis D, et al. Prognostic impact of urokinase, urokinase receptor, and type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in squamous and large cell lung cancer tissue. Cancer Res 1994;54:46714675.
  • 226
    Nielsen HJ, Pappot H, Christensen IJ, et al. Association between plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. BMJ 1998;316:829830.
  • 227
    Nekarda H, Schmitt M, Ulm K, et al. Prognostic impact of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its inhibitor PAI-1 in completely resected gastric cancer. Cancer Res 1994;54:29002907.
  • 228
    McMahon GA, Petitclerc E, Stefansson S, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 regulates tumor growth and angiogenesis. J Biol Chem 2001;276:3396433968.
  • 229
    Lijnen HR. Pleiotropic functions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:3545.
  • 230
    Czekay RP, Aertgeerts K, Curriden SA, Loskutoff DJ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 detaches cells from extracellular matrices by inactivating integrins. J Cell Biol 2003;160:781791.
  • 231
    Loskutoff DJ, Curriden SA, Hu G, Deng G. Regulation of cell adhesion by PAI-1. APMIS 1999;107:5461.
  • 232
    Bajou K, Masson V, Gerard RD, et al. The plasminogen activator inhibitor PAI-1 controls in vivo tumor vascularization by interaction with proteases, not vitronectin. Implications for antiangiogenic strategies. J Cell Biol 2001;152:777784.
  • 233
    Roca C, Primo L, Valdembri D, et al. Hyperthermia inhibits angiogenesis by a plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res 2003;63:15001507.
  • 234
    Webb DJ, Thomas KS, Gonias SL. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 functions as a urokinase response modifier at the level of cell signaling and thereby promotes MCF-7 cell growth. J Cell Biol 2001;152:741752.
  • 235
    Castello R, Espana F, Vazquez C, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer patients and its association with tissue PAI-1 levels and tumor severity. Thromb Res 2006;117:487–492.
  • 236
    Kruithof EK, Tran-Thang C, Gudinchet A, et al. Fibrinolysis in pregnancy: A study of plasminogen activator inhibitors. Blood 1987;69:460466.
  • 237
    Estelles A, Gilabert J, Andres C, Espana F, Aznar J. Plasminogen activator inhibitors type 1 and type 2 and plasminogen activators in amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 1990;64:281285.
  • 238
    Estelles A, Gilabert J, Espana F, Aznar J, Galbis M. Fibrinolytic parameters in normotensive pregnancy with intrauterine fetal growth retardation and in severe preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:138142.
  • 239
    Estelles A, Gilabert J, Aznar J, Loskutoff DJ, Schleef RR. Changes in the plasma levels of type 1 and type 2 plasminogen activator inhibitors in normal pregnancy and in patients with severe preeclampsia. Blood 1989;74:13321338.
  • 240
    Vergnani L, Zuliani G, Ricci F, et al. Fibrinolytic and coagulation factors in very old subjects: Association with lipoprotein profile and anthropometric variables. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998;53:M8M13.
  • 241
    Hsu FC, Kritchevsky SB, Liu Y, et al. Association between inflammatory components and physical function in the health, aging, and body composition study: A principal component analysis approach. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64:581589.
  • 242
    Werner O. Uber Kataract in Verbindung mit Sklerodermie[dissertation]. Kiel, Germany: Kiel University, 1904.
  • 243
    Epstein CJ, Martin GM, Schultz AL, Motulsky AG. Werner's syndrome a review of its symptomatology, natural history, pathologic features, genetics and relationship to the natural aging process. Medicine (Baltimore) 1966;45:177221.
  • 244
    Murano S. Potential for pharmacological intervention in Werner syndrome. Drugs Aging 1995;7:449458.
  • 245
    Juhan-Vague I, Alessi MC, Vague P. Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels. A possible link between insulin resistance and atherothrombosis. Diabetologia 1991;34:457462.
  • 246
    Colwell JA. Vascular thrombosis in type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1993;42:811.
  • 247
    Nordt TK, Schneider DJ, Sobel BE. Augmentation of the synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 by precursors of insulin. A potential risk factor for vascular disease. Circulation 1994;89:321330.
  • 248
    Murano S, Nakazawa A, Saito I, et al. Increased blood plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as possible risk factors of atherosclerosis in Werner syndrome. Gerontology 1997;43(Suppl 1):4352.
  • 249
    Murano S, Thweatt R, Shmookler Reis RJ, Jones RA, Moerman EJ, Goldstein S. Diverse gene sequences are overexpressed in Werner syndrome fibroblasts undergoing premature replicative senescence. Mol Cell Biol 1991;11:39053914.
  • 250
    Kanzaki T, Murano S, Morisaki N, Saito Y, Yoshida S, Wada M. Increased plasma fibronectin in Werner syndrome. Lancet 1992;339:1244.
  • 251
    Stratton JR, Chandler WL, Schwartz RS, et al. Effects of physical conditioning on fibrinolytic variables and fibrinogen in young and old healthy adults. Circulation 1991;83:16921697.
  • 252
    Gonzales F, Manas M, Seiquer I, et al. Blood platelet function in healthy individuals of different ages. Effects of exercise and exercise conditioning. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1996;36:112116.
  • 253
    Taddei S, Galetta F, Virdis A, et al. Physical activity prevents age-related impairment in nitric oxide availability in elderly athletes. Circulation 2000;101:28962901.
  • 254
    Killewich LA, Macko RF, Montgomery PS, Wiley LA, Gardner AW. Exercise training enhances endogenous fibrinolysis in peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg 2004;40:741745.
  • 255
    Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Whincup PH, Rumley A, Walker M, Lennon L. Physical activity and hemostatic and inflammatory variables in elderly men. Circulation 2002;105:17851790.
  • 256
    DeSouza CA, Dengel DR, Rogers MA, Cox K, Macko RF. Fibrinolytic responses to acute physical activity in older hypertensive men. J Appl Physiol 1997;82:17651770.
  • 257
    Skurk T, Hauner H. Obesity and impaired fibrinolysis: Role of adipose production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:13571364.
  • 258
    McGill HCJ, McMahan CA, Herderick EE, et al. Obesity accelerates the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in young men. Circulation 2002;105:27122718.
  • 259
    Mertens I, Van Gaal LF. Obesity, haemostasis and the fibrinolytic system. Obes Rev 2002;3:85101.
  • 260
    Calles-Escandon J, Ballor D, Harvey-Berino J, Ades P, Tracy R, Sobel B. Amelioration of the inhibition of fibrinolysis in elderly, obese subjects by moderate energy intake restriction. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:711.
  • 261
    Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, et al. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:544551.
  • 262
    Nicklas BJ, Hsu FC, Brinkley TJ, et al. Exercise training and plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in elderly people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:20452052.
  • 263
    Bastard JP, Vidal H, Jardel C, et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene during very low calorie diet in obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:7074.
  • 264
    Volpato S, Pahor M, Ferrucci L, et al. Relationship of alcohol intake with inflammatory markers and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in well-functioning older adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Circulation 2004;109:607612.
  • 265
    Kruszynska YT, Yu JG, Olefsky JM, Sobel BE. Effects of troglitazone on blood concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and in lean and obese normal subjects. Diabetes 2000;49:633639.
  • 266
    Fonseca VA, Reynolds T, Hemphill D, et al. Effect of troglitazone on fibrinolysis and activated coagulation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications 1998;12:181186.
  • 267
    Gottschling-Zeller H, Rohrig K, Hauner H. Troglitazone reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in cultured human adipocytes. Diabetologia 2000;43:377383.
  • 268
    Hanefeld M, Marx N, Pfutzner A, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of pioglitazone and/or simvastatin in high cardiovascular risk patients with elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein: The PIOSTAT Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:290297.
  • 269
    Brown NJ, Agirbasli MA, Williams GH, Litchfield WR, Vaughan DE. Effect of activation and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on plasma PAI-1. Hypertension 1998;32:965971.
  • 270
    Skurk T, Lee YM, Hauner H. Angiotensin II and its metabolites stimulate PAI-1 protein release from human adipocytes in primary culture. Hypertension 2001;37:13361340.
  • 271
    Vaughan DE, Rouleau JL, Ridker PM, Arnold JM, Menapace FJ, Pfeffer MA; HEART Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on plasma fibrinolytic balance in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Circulation 1997;96:442447.
  • 272
    Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, Atkinson HH, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers: Results from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors (TRAIN) study. Am Heart J 2009;157:334.e1334.e8.
  • 273
    Skurk T, Lee YM, Nicuta-Rolfs TO, Haastert B, Wirth A, Hauner H. Effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan on fibrinolysis in patients with mild hypertension. Diabetes Obes Metab 2004;6:5662.
  • 274
    Seljeflot I, Moan A, Kjeldsen S, Sandvik E, Arnesen H. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on fibrinolysis during acute hyperinsulinemia in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1996;27:12991304.
  • 275
    Erdem Y, Usalan C, Haznedaroglu IC, et al. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor inhibition on impaired fibrinolysis in systemic hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:10711076.
  • 276
    Zirlik A, Ernst S, Leugers A, et al. Inhibition by fibrates of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression in human adipocytes and preadipocytes. Thromb Haemost 2009;101:10601069.
  • 277
    Wei J, Ma C, Wang X. Simvastatin inhibits tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression of glomerular mesangial cells in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Biomed Res 2006;27:149155.
  • 278
    Dichtl W, Dulak J, Frick M, et al. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors regulate inflammatory transcription factors in human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:5863.
  • 279
    Haslinger B, Kleemann R, Toet KH, Kooistra T. Simvastatin suppresses tissue factor expression and increases fibrinolytic activity in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Kidney Int 2003;63:20652074.
  • 280
    Qu HY, Xiao YW, Jiang GH, Wang ZY, Zhang Y, Zhang M. Effect of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on levels of serum lipids, inflammatory markers and adiponectin in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Pharm Res 2009;26:958964.
  • 281
    Nordt TK, Kornas K, Peter K, et al. Attenuation by gemfibrozil of expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 induced by insulin and its precursors. Circulation 1997;95:677683.
  • 282
    Nordt TK, Lutzi S, Ruef J, et al. Attenuation by fibrates of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression in human arterial smooth muscle cells. Thromb Haemost 2001;86:13051313.