• 1
    Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, et al. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults: The Bogalusa heart study. N Engl J Med 1998;338:16501656.
  • 2
    Davis PH, Dawson JD, Riley WA, Lauer RM. Carotid intimal-medial thickness is related to cardiovascular risk factors measured from childhood through middle age: The Muscatine study. Circulation 2001;104:28152819.
  • 3
    Li S, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, et al. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in ad ulthood: The Bogalusa study. JAMA 2003;290:22712276.
  • 4
    Wiegman A, Hutten BA, DeGroot E, et al. Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:331337.
  • 5
    Engler MM, Engler MB, Malloy MJ, et al. Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: Endothelial assessment of risk from lipids in youth (EARLY) trial. Circulation 2003;108:10591063.
  • 6
    Sprecher DL, Schaefer EJ, Kent KM, et al. Cardiovascular features of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Analysis of 16 patients. Am J Cardiol 1984;54:2030.
  • 7
    Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR, et al. Cardiovascular health in childhood: A statement for health professionals from the committee on atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young (AHOY) of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young, American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2002;106:1178]. Circulation 2002;106:143160.
  • 8
    Kavey RE, Daniels SR, Lauer RM, et al. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation 2003;107:15621566.
  • 9
    Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, French PA, Califf RM. Diets and clinical coronary events: The truth is out there. Circulation 2003;107:1016.
  • 10
    Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 2003;348:25992608.
  • 11
    Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Hercberg S, Dallongeville J. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 2006;136:25882593.
  • 12
    Lee KW, Lip GY. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. QJM 2003;96:465480.
  • 13
    Napoli C, Glass CK, Witztum JL, et al. Influence of maternal hypercholesterolaemia during pregnancy on progression of early atherosclerotic lesions in childhood: Fate of early lesions in children (FELIC) study. Lancet 1999;354:12341241.
  • 14
    Newman WP 3rd, Freedman DS, Voors AW, et al. Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis. The Bogalusa heart study. N Engl J Med 1986;314:138144.
  • 15
    Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Dallongeville J; Medscape. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2009;6:599608.
  • 16
    Grant R, Bilgin A, Zeuschner C, et al. The relative impact of a vegetable-rich diet on key markers of health in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17:107115.
  • 17
    Mikkilä V, Räsänen L, Laaksonen MM, et al. Long-term dietary patterns and carotid artery intima media thickness: The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. Br J Nutr 2009;102:15071512.
  • 18
    Lazarou C, Panagiotakos DB, Matalas AL. Lifestyle factors are determinants of children's blood pressure levels: The CYKIDS study. J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:456463.
  • 19
    Patch CS, Tapsell LC, Mori TA, et al. The use of novel foods enriched with longchain n-3 fatty acids to increase dietary intake: A comparison of methodologies assessing nutrient intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:19181926.
  • 20
    Szmitko PE, Wang CH, Weisel RD, et al. New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation. Part I. Circulation 2003;108:19171923.
  • 21
    Calder PC. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:15051519.
  • 22
    Patch CS, Tapsell LC, Mori TA, et al. The use of novel foods enriched with longchain n-3 fatty acids to increase dietary intake: A comparison of methodologies assessing nutrient intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:19181926.
  • 23
    Carrero JJ, Baro' L, Fonolla' J, et al. Cardiovascular effects of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins E and B6 in volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia. Nutrition 2004;20:521527.
  • 24
    Romeo J, Wärnberg J, García-Mármol E, et al. Daily consumption of milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, minerals and vitamins reduces cell adhesion molecules in healthy children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009. [doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.08.007]
  • 25
    Yeboah J, Crouse JR, Hsu FC, Burke GL, Herrington DM. Brachial flow-mediated dilation predicts incident cardiovascular events in older adults: The cardiovascular health study. Circulation 2007;115:23902397.
  • 26
    Cooke JP. Flow. NO and atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:768770.
  • 27
    Violi F, Sanguigni V, Carnevale R, et al. Hereditary deficiency of gp91(phox) is associated with enhanced arterial dilatation: Results of a multicenter study. Circulation 2009;120:16161622.
  • 28
    Clarkson P, Adams MR, Powe AJ, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults. J Clin Invest 1996;97:19891994.
  • 29
    Bennett-Richards KJ, Kattenhorn M, Donald AE, et al. Oral L-arginine does not improve endothelial dysfunction in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2002;62:13721378.
  • 30
    Ting HH, Timimi FK, Haley EA, et al. Vitamin C improves endothelium dependent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels of humans with hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 1997;95:26172622.
  • 31
    Levine GN, Frei B, Koulouris SN, et al. Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1996;93:11071113.
  • 32
    Engler MM, Engler MB, Malloy MJ, et al. Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: Endothelial assessment of risk from lipids in youth (EARLY) trial. Circulation 2003;108:10591063.
  • 33
    National Center for Health Statistics. Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States. Hyattsville , MD : 2003.
  • 34
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, et al. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obesity Rev 2005;6:123132.
  • 35
    Amschler DH. The alarming increase of type 2 diabetes in children. J Sch Health 2002;72:3941.
  • 36
    Whitaker R, Wright J, Pepe M, Seidel K, Dietz W. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997;337:869873.
  • 37
    Bibbins-Domingo K, Coxson P, Pletcher M, Lightwood J, Goldman L. Adolescent overweight and future coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2007;357:23712379.
  • 38
    Ford ES, Ajani UA, Mokdad AH, National Health and Nutrition E. The metabolic syndrome and concentrations of C-reactive protein among U.S. youth. Diabetes Care 2005;28:878881.
  • 39
    Morrison J, Friedman L, Gray-McGuire C. Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts adult cardiovascular disease 25 years later: The Princeton lipid research clinics follow-up study. Pediatrics 2007;120:340345.
  • 40
    Slavin JL. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition 2005;21:411418.
  • 41
    Rogovik AL, Goldman RD. Should weight-loss supplements be used for pediatric obesity?. Can Fam Physician 2009;55:257259.
  • 42
    Pashankar DS, Loening-Baucke V. Increased prevalence of obesity in children with functional constipation evaluated in an academic medical center. Pediatrics 2005;116:e377–e380.
  • 43
    Gropper SS, Acosta PB. The therapeutic effect of fiber in treating obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 1987;6:533535.
  • 44
    Keithley J, Swanson B. Glucomannan and obesity: A critical review. Altern Ther Health Med 2005;11:3034.
  • 45
    Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:907S912S.
  • 46
    Sakhaee K, Maalouf NM. Dietary calcium, obesity and hypertension–the end of the road?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:44114413.
  • 47
    Novotny R, Daida YG, Acharya S, Grove JS, Vogt TM. Dairy intake is associated with lower body fat and soda intake with greater weight in adolescent girls. J Nutr 2004;134:19051909.
  • 48
    Novotny R. Dairy, calcium and body composition of multiethnic youth. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2004;13:S36.
  • 49
    Moreira P, Padez C, Mourao I, Rosado V. Dietary calcium and body mass index in Portuguese children. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:861867.
  • 50
    Venti CA, Tataranni PA, Salbe AD. Lack of relationship between calcium intake and body size in an obesity-prone population. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:14011407.
  • 51
    Carruth BR, Skinner JD. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in moderating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:559566.
  • 52
    Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:16261631.
  • 53
    Moore LL, Bradlee ML, Gao D, Singer MR. Low dairy intake in early childhood predicts excess body fat gain. Obesity2006;14:10101018.
  • 54
    Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Cyr H, et al. Dairy food consumption and body weight and fatness studied longitudinally over the adolescent period. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:11061113.
  • 55
    Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: A longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159:543550.
  • 56
    DeJongh ED, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Fat mass gain is lower in calcium-supplemented than in unsupplemented preschool children with low dietary calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:11231127.
  • 57
    Winzenberg T, Shaw K, Fryer J, Jones G. Calcium supplements in healthy children do not affect weight gain, height, or body composition. Obesity 2007;15:17891798.
  • 58
    Raitakari OT, Juonala M, Kahonen M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. JAMA 2003;290:22772283.
  • 59
    Aggoun Y, Bonnet D, Sidi D, et al. Arterial mechanical changes in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:20702075.
  • 60
    Martino F, Loffredo L, Carnevale R, et al. Oxidative stress is associated with arterial dysfunction and enhanced intima-media thickness in children with hypercholesterolemia: The potential role of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Pediatrics 2008;122:e648e655.
  • 61
    National Cholesterol Education Program Coordinating Committee. The report of the expert panel on blood cholesterol levels in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1992;89:525584.
  • 62
    Stein EA, Shapiro J, McNerney C, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions after alteration in dietary cholesterol, polyunsaturated, saturated, and total fat in free living normal and hypercholesterolemic children. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:13751390.
  • 63
    Sanchez-Bayle M, Gonzalez-Requejo A, Baeza J, et al. Diet therapy for hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1994;148:2832.
  • 64
    Jenkins DA, Wolever TM, Rao AV, et al. Effects on blood lipids of very high intakes of fiber in diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1993;329:2126.
  • 65
    Dennison BA, Levine DM. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover clinical trial of psyllium fiber in children with hypercholesterolemia. J Pediatr 1993;123:2429.
  • 66
    Martino F, Martino E, Morrone F, et al. Effect of dietary supplementation with glucomannan on plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2005;15:174180.
  • 67
    Sanchez-Bayle M, Gonzalez-Requejo A, Asensio-Anton J, et al. The effect of fiber supplementation on lipid profile in children with hypercholesterolemia. Clin Pediatr 2001;40:291294.
  • 68
    Pignatelli P, Loffredo L, Martino F, et al. Myeloperoxidase overexpression in children with hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 2009;205:239243.
  • 69
    Sentandreu E, Izquierdo L, Sendra JM. Differentiation of juices from clementine (Citrus clementina), clementine-hybrids, and satsuma (Citrus unshiu) cultivars by statistical multivariate discriminant analysis of their flavanone-7–0-glycosides and fully methoxylated flavones content as determined by liquid chromatography. Eur Food Res Technol 2007;224:421429.
  • 70
    Codoñer-Franch P, López-Jaén AB, Muñiz P, Sentandreu E, Bellés VV. Mandarin juice improves the antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008;47:349355.
  • 71
    Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK. The pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1994;24:14281436.
  • 72
    Åkerblom HK, Vaarala O, Hyöty H, Ilonen J, Knip M. Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. Am J Med Genet 2002;115:1829.
  • 73
    Muntoni S, Cocco P, Aru G, Cucca F, Muntoni S. Nutritional factors and worldwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:15251529.
  • 74
    EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group. Vitamin D supplement in early childhood and risk for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1999;42:5154.
  • 75
    Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Engl J Med 1989;320:265271.
  • 76
    Hyppönen E, Läärä E, Reunanen A, Järvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: A birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001;358:15001503.
  • 77
    Litherland SA, Xie XT, Hutson AD, et al. Aberrant prostaglandin synthase 2 expression defines an antigen-presenting cell defect for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999;104:515523.
  • 78
    Johansson L, Solvoll K, Bjørneboe GE, Drevon CA. Dietary habits among Norwegian men and women. Scand J Nutr 1997;41:6370.
  • 79
    Stene LC, Joner G; Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Study Group. Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: A large, population-based, case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:11281134.
  • 80
    Danne T, Kordonouri O, Hövener C, et al. Diabetic angiopathy in children. Diabetic Med 1997;14:10121025.
  • 81
    Davì G, Chiarelli F, Santilli F, et al. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and platelet activation in the early phase of type 1 diabetes mellitus: Role of interleukin-6 and disease duration. Circulation 2003;107:31993203.
  • 82
    Feener EP, King GL. Vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1997;350:SI9SI13.
  • 83
    Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Paolisso G. Oxidative stress and diabetic vascular complications. Diabetes Care 1996;19:257267.
  • 84
    Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 2000;23:13891394.
  • 85
    Nemes-Nagy E, Szocs-Molnár T, Dunca I, et al. Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in type 1 diabetic children. Acta Physiol Hung 2008;95:383393.
  • 86
    Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002;360:19031913.
  • 87
    Lever AF, Harrap SB. Essential hypertension: A disorder of growth with origins in childhood?. J Hypertension 1992;10:101120.
  • 88
    Barker DJ. Mothers, babies and health in later life. London : Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
  • 89
    Taittonen L, Nuutinen M, Turtinen J, Uhari M. Prenatal and postnatal factors in predicting later blood pressure among children: Cardiovascular risk in young Finns. Pediatr Res 1996;40:627632.
  • 90
    Mori TA, Beilin LJ. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, blood lipids and cardiovascular risk reduction. Curr Opin Lipidol 2001;12:1117.
  • 91
    Forsyth JS, Willatts P, Agostoni C, et al. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infant formula and blood pressure in later childhood: Follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:953957.
  • 92
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension 2003;42:12061252.
  • 93
    Gillman MW, Oliveria SA, Moore LL, et al. Inverse association of dietary calcium with systolic blood pressure in young children. JAMA 1992;267:23402343.
  • 94
    Cappuccio FP, Elliott P, Allender PS, et al. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:935945.
  • 95
    Hofmeyr GJ, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD001059.
  • 96
    Bakker R, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman KP, Lipshultz SE, Gillman MW. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring at age 3 years: A follow-up analysis of the project Viva cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2008;168:13741380.