• Cardiovascular disease;
  • NADPH oxidase;
  • new therapeutics;
  • aptamers


Over 40 years ago, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 2 (Nox2) was discovered in phagocytes and found to be essential in innate immunity. More than 20 years passed before additional Nox isoforms were discovered; and since then, studies have revealed that several of these isoforms (Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5) are found in human cardiac and vascular cells and contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recently, major efforts have focused on identifying inhibitors capable of ameliorating Nox-mediated CVD. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of each Nox isoform in CVD, identify steps in Nox signaling that will serve as potential targets for the design of therapeutics, and highlight innovative strategies likely to yield effective Nox inhibitors within the next decade.