Various studies have reported on the neuroprotective effects of polyphenols, widely present in food, beverages, and natural products. For example, we have shown that resveratrol, a polyphenol enriched in red wine and other foods such as peanuts, protects hippocampal cells against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity, a key protein involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease. This effect involves, at least in part, the capacity of resveratrol to activate the phosphorylation of delta isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-δ). The neuroprotective action of resveratrol is shared by piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, as well as by tea-derived catechin gallate esters. The thioflavin T assay indicated that all these polyphenols inhibited the formation of Aβ fibrils, suggesting that this action likely also contributes to their neuroprotective effects. Binding and autoradiographic studies revealed that the effects of polyphenols might involve specific binding sites that are particularly enriched in the choroid plexus in the rat brain. Interestingly, the choroid plexus secretes transthyretin, a protein that has been shown to modulate Aβ aggregation and that may be critical to the maintenance of normal learning capacities in aging. Taken together, these data suggest that polyphenols target multiple enzymes/proteins, leading to their neuroprotective actions, possibly through action via specific plasma membrane binding sites.