The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Female Early Adult Depression Results in Detrimental Impacts on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Development in Offspring
Article first published online: 3 JUN 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Volume 18, Issue 6, pages 461–470, June 2012
How to Cite
Gong, Y., Sun, X.-L., Wu, F.-F., Su, C.-J., Ding, J.-H. and Hu, G. (2012), Female Early Adult Depression Results in Detrimental Impacts on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Development in Offspring. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 18: 461–470. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2012.00324.x
- Issue published online: 3 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 3 JUN 2012
- Received 5 January 2012; revision 31 January 2012; accepted 1 February 2012
- Behavioral performance;
- Brain development;
- Early adult;
Aims: The present study was to understand whether early adult depressive females implicated their offspring. Methods: Seven-week-old female mice were subject to chronic mild stress (CMS) to establish the animal model of depression. The behavioral performance of their offspring were tested via neonatal reflexes tests, hole-board test, and morris water maze test in different ages. Astrocyte number, hippocampal volume, and neurogenesis were analyzed via immunohistochemical blotting. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and serum cortisol levels were measured by western blotting and ELISA. Results: Female depressive mice had normal fertility, but their offspring had lowered neonatal survival rate and body weight from neonatal period to early adulthood. The offspring of female depressive mice exhibited the impairments of neonatal reflex attainment and memory, but had higher emotionality as adults. Furthermore, the astrocyte number, hippocampal volume, and neurogenesis were reduced in the offspring. However, the expressions of GR were increased in the hippocampus of offspring. Conclusion: This study reveals that female early adult depressive mice have normal reproductive ability, but make long-term detrimental impacts on the behavioral performance and brain development of their offspring.