The vascular plant flora of open land on superficial bedrock in southem Sweden (northwards to 59°N) is described and related to soil chemical properties. including soil acidity (pH), exchangeable Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, and phosphate, as well as to soil solution pH and concentrations of Al, Ca and Mg, and to the contents of soil organic matter, soil depth and bedrock types (sandstone, gneiss, granites, various dark igneous rocks and limestones). About 120 localities with totally 652 sites (4 m2) have been examined. Experimental evidence for the toxicity of acid soils and mineral nutrient deficiency of neutral and alkaline soils is related to field data. Hydrogen and Al ion toxicity in acid soils and low phosphate solubility in neutral - alkaline soils are identified as major factors limiting the field distributions of rock habitat plants. Some species (e.g., Rumex acetosella and Sedum telephium) were limited by phosphate also in acid soils. The relative importance of H and Al ion concentrations to plant performance under variously acid soil conditions is discussed, and strong evidence is given for a decisive influence of Al ion toxicity on species diversity at pH-KCI > 4.5. The importance of grazing and former land use is considered briefly and the floristic differences between the western and the eastern half of the study area are discussed originating from differences in general distribution patterns of species and soil chemical properties.